Resource Details

Seed Dispersal by Birds and Bats in Lowland Philippine Forest Successional Area

Literature: Journal Articles

Regielene S. Gonzales, Nina R. Ingle, Daniel A. Lagunzad and Tohru Nakashizuka. (2009). “Seed Dispersal by Birds and Bats in Lowland Philippine Forest Successional Area”. Biotropica, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 452-458

Contact Info

Corresponding author:


  • Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan

  • Institute of Biology, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines

  • Wildlife Conservation Society of the Philippines, 309 6th A Street, Ecoland, Davao City 8021, Philippines


Species Info

  • Bridelia stipularis
  • Ficus sp
  • Lantana camara
  • Leea guineensis
  • Memecylon cf. lanceolatum
  • Trema sp.
  • Vitex parviflora


  • The authors investigated the relative importance of birds and bats as seed dispersers in a successional (degraded) lowland dipterocarp forest habitat in the Subic Watershed Reserve on Luzon Island, the Philippines. 

  • By setting day and night traps to collect seed rain through the wet and dry season, and identifying species caught in day (bird) vs. night (bat) traps, it was concluded that birds were the predominate disperser in the area.  Bats were significantly less important during the dry season, but a close second in the wet season. 

  • Based on their local importance of birds for seed dispersal, the suggestion to plant trees attractive to birds in the degraded areas is also made.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • Philippines
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