Resource Details

Mangrove restoration without planting

Literature: Journal Articles

Kamali, B. & H. Roslan. 2011. Mangrove restoration without planting. Ecological Engineering 37: 387-391.

Contact Info

Corresponding author: Babak Kamali,


- Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia


Selecting the link above redirects this page to the article on the journal website where the online material can be purchased or accessed if with subscription. For more information on access, see sidebar.

Species Info

  • Avicennia marina


  • Active planting of mangroves in Malaysia from 2005 to 2010 is estimated at 5,200 USD per hectare, often with low rates of seedling survival.
  • To examine the effects of encouraging natural regeneration, a “breakwater” was installed on a deforested mudflat in peninsular Malaysia that reduced wave action and encouraged sediment deposition behind the breakwater.
  • Seedlings planted at the same time as the installation of the breakwater died (100% mortality within 9 months) due to active sedimentation; however, following reductions in sedimentation rates, hundreds of water-borne natural recruits (312) established on the mudflat.
  • The authors conclude that (i) strong wave action before installing the breakwater likely prevented establishment of natural recruits, (ii) the high sedimentation rates after installing the breakwater likely induced mortality in transplanted seedlings, and (iii) transplanting seedlings after reduction in sedimentation rates may have yielded higher survival rates.
  • The construction of the breakwater and planting of seedlings in this particular study was prohibitively expensive (61,000 USD per hectare), but low-cost alternatives that achieve the same effects of the breakwater in this particular study exist.


Geographical Region

  • Mainland Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Mangrove
  • Country

  • Malaysia
  • This database is a work in progress, and we need your input to keep it up to date. Feel free to contact ELTI at to provide information on your own work as well as other projects and literature currently missing from the database.


    ELTI is a joint initiative of:
    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute