Resource Details

Reforestation experiences with dipterocarp species on grassland

Literature: Books or Book Chapters

Otsamo, R., Otsamo, A. & Adjers, G. 1996, "Reforestation experiences with dipterocarp species on grassland" in Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management, eds. A. Schulte & D. Schone, World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 411-445.


In Library

Species Info

  • Anisoptera marginata
  • Hopea sangal
  • Shorea hopeifolia
  • Shorea johorensis
  • Shorea leprosula
  • Shorea macroptera
  • Shorea parvifolia
  • Vatica sp.
  • Anisoptera scaphula
  • Anisoptera laevis
  • Dipterocarpus baudii
  • Dryobalanops aromatica
  • Dryobalanops lanceolata
  • Hopea odorata
  • Shorea platyclados
  • Shorea robusta
  • Shorea stnoptera
  • Paraserianthes falcataria (exotic - native to other regions of Indonesia)
  • Acacia mangium (exotic)
  • Gmelina arborea (exotic)
  • Leucaena leucocephala (exotic)
  • Pinus kesiya (exotic)
  • Acacia auriculiformis (exotic)
  • Eucalyptus deglupta (exotic) 


In this book chapter, the authors describe techniques for selecting species, planting, and tending to dipterocarp trees planted in Imperata cylindrica (Alang-Alang) grasslands. They provide evidence that dipterocarps are not able to successfully regenerate on I. cylindrica grasslands and, therefore, the use of nurse trees (that grow quickly, suppress grasses, and provide shade for dipterocarp seedlings) are an important component of dipterocarp regeneration. Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala, Pinus kesiya, Acacia auriculiformis, Eucalyptus deglupta, Gmelina arborea, and Paraserianthes falcataria have been used for nurse trees, but also can have drawbacks. The authors recommend species trials both fast-growing exotics and indigenous pioneer species to evaluate the suitability as nurse trees to promote dipterocarp growth on grassland. The authors provide information from the Riam Kiwa pilot plantation on the growth and survival of dipterocarp species under Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria species in grassland areas. Plantations of Anisoptera marginata interplanted with Acacia mangium plantations had the highest survival (90%) with growth of 4.5m tall and 4.1cm DBH in 6.5 years. The highest growth was recorded for Anisoptera marginata interplanted with Paraseranthes falcataria with survival 83%, height 7.9m and DBH 7.4cm in 7.5 years. At 5-5.5 years, Vatica sp., Shorea leprosula, and Hopea sangal planted with P. falcataria had survivals of 83%, 52-72%, and 49% respectively. Shorea hopeifolia, Shorea johorensis, Shorea macroptera, and Shorea parvifolia had less that 30% survival in plantings with P. falcataria. The authors describe that the management of mixed plantations requires more active involvement than the management of monoculture plantations of fast-growing exotics. They stress the importance of considering in the plantation design the space needed for felling and skidding nurse trees without damage to the dipterocarps. The authors encourage the forest management community to join forces between those aimed at establishing exotic plantations and those seeking dipterocarp regeneration through the use of fast-growing nurse trees. They suggest that dipterocarps should be included in grassland plantation programs whenever technically possible.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • Indonesia
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