Resource Details

Performance of 45 Native Tree Species on Degraded Lands in Singapore

Literature: Journal Articles

Shono, K., Davies, S.J. & Chua, Y.K. 2007, "Performance of 45 Native Tree Species on Degraded Lands in Singapore", Journal of Tropical Forest Science, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 25-34.


  • Center for Tropical Forest Science - Arnold Arboretum Asia Program, 1 Nanyang Walk, 637616 Singapore
  • National Parks Board of Singapore, 1 Cluny Road, 259569 Singapore


Journal of Tropical Forest Science

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Species Info

  • Alstonia angustiloba
  • Aquilaria malaccensis
  • Archidendron elliptica
  • Campnosperma auriculatum
  • Canarium littorale
  • Carallia brachiata
  • Cinnamomum iners
  • Cleistanthus malaccensis
  • Cratoxylum cochinchinense
  • Cratoxylum formosum
  • Dipterocarpus caudatus
  • Dyera costulata
  • Elaeocarpus mastersii
  • Emblica officinalis
  • Fragraea fragrans
  • Garcinia atroviridis
  • Gnetum gnemon
  • Gonystylus confusus
  • Hopea mengarawan
  • Hopea nutans
  • Intsia palembanica
  • Koompassia malaccensis
  • Lepisanthes rubigninosa
  • Lithocarpus ewyckii
  • Litsea elliptica
  • Neolitsea zeylanica
  • Parkia speciosa
  • Pentace triptera
  • Pometia pinnata
  • Pouteria obovata
  • Rhodamnia cinerea
  • Sandoricum koetjape
  • Shorea acuminata
  • Shorea leprosula
  • Shorea macroptera
  • Shorea ovalis
  • Sindora wallichii
  • Streblus elongatus
  • Strombosia javanica
  • Syzygium borneense
  • Syzygium grande
  • Syzygium lineatum
  • Syzygium polyanthum
  • Syzygium syzygioides
  • Syzygium zeylanicum


  • This paper evaluates research on the reforestation potential of 45 native tree species in Singapore, with a specific focus on identifying species that can quickly form a closed canopy.
  • Annual growth rate and survival was calculated for saplings (total 1640) planted between 1999 and 2004 on seven different sites, 3 dry, 2 average, 2 wet.
  • Survival was high (over 90%) for most species, which the authors attribute to the large initial planting size (1cm DBH, 1.5m height).
  • Some species demonstrated differences in growth between sites.
  • For example, Sandoricum koetjape had significantly greater growth rates on a dry hill site with full sun, Pometia pinnata (naturally found on riversides) had significantly greater growth rates on a wet site, and Syzygium polyanthum had no site preference.
  • Parkia speciosa, a legume, had the highest mean annual diameter (2.32 cm/yr)and height growth (212.5 cm/yr) of the 45 species, followed by Cratoxylum cochinchinense (1.96 cm dbh and 154.3 cm height per year).
  • Among dipterocarps, Dipterocarpus caudatus and Hopea nutans had the highest growth rate (1.21 cm DBH and 1.14 cm DBH per year, respectively).
  • Among secondary growth species, Elaeocarpus mastersii had the highest growth rate (1.75cm DBH and 165.4 cm height per year).
  • Several additional dipterocarps, legumes, secondary forest species, and other species demonstrated average to favorable performance.
  • The authors found that Strombosia javanica, Shorea ovalis, Shorea macroptera, Rhodamnia cinerea, Alstonia angustiloba, Pouteria obovata, Aquilaria malaccensis, Gonystylus confusus and Lepisanthes rubiginosa grew too slowly and would be unsuitable for reforestation.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • Singapore
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