Resource Details

A unified framework for the restoration of Southeast Asian mangroves-bridging ecology, society and economics

Literature: Journal Articles

Biswas, S.R., Mallik, A.U., Choudhury, J.K., & Nishat, A. 2009, "A unified framework for the restoration of Southeast Asian mangroves-bridging ecology, society and economics", Wetlands Ecology and Management, vol. 17, pp. 365–383.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author: S. R. Biswas,


  • Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON P7B5E1, Canada
  • IUCN - the World Conservation Union, Bangladesh Country Office, H-11, Road 138, Gulshan 1, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh


Wetlands Ecology and Management

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  • In this article, the authors discuss the causes of mangrove degradation and the reasons for which many mangrove restoration projects ultimately fail, especially in Southeast Asia.
  • In cases where mangrove degradation is due to natural disturbance, the recovery can rely on the restoration of ecological functioning, considering principles of secondary succession, as well as be enhanced by planned restoration activities.
  • When mangroves are degraded because of conversion to other land uses, the economic and social drivers behind the degradation must be addressed before initiating a restoration action.
  • In general, the authors describe that unless the restoration plan considers the economic benefit of the project to the communities, as well as ecology and society, the restoration will only be temporary and will become degraded again.
  • They provide a framework for mangrove restoration projects that follow 6 key steps: 1) Identifying the problems and outlining restoration goals, 2) Evaluating the past and present ecosystem conditions, 3) outlining a restoration plan using ecological engineering, 4) developing a plan for community involvement and income generation from the restoration, 5) developing a detailed implementation plan, 6) developing and implementing a rigorous monitoring mechanism that can allow for the logical adaptive management.
  • The authors provide an example of a mangrove restoration project in Chokoria Sundarbans, Bangladesh in which the community based approach was plantation management.
  • This project was demonstrated to encourage positive impacts on the ecosystem, the society as a whole, the community participants, the financial condition of the participants, leadership in the project implementation, rigorous monitoring, and overall success.


  • Mangrove
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