Resource Details

Local mangrove planting in the Philippines: Are fisherfolk and fishpond owners effective restorationists?

Literature: Journal Articles

Walters, B.B. 2000, "Local mangrove planting in the Philippines: Are fisherfolk and fishpond owners effective restorationists?", Restoration Ecology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 237-246.


  • Human Ecology Department and Graduate Program in Ecology & Evolution , Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520, U.S.A.
  • Department of Geography , Mount Allison University, 144 Main St., Sackville, N.B. Canada E4L 1A7.


Restoration Ecology

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Species Info

  • Rhizophora mucronata
  • Rhizophora apiculata
  • Avicennia marina
  • Nipa fruticans
  • Sonneratia spp.
  • Bruguiera cylindrica
  • Ceriops decandra


  • This paper evaluates ecological characteristics of mangrove plantations, planted by the local community, in comparison with natural mangroves in the same areas of the Philippines.
  • Thirty-three mangrove plantations and 19 natural mangrove forests were surveyed on Banacon Island for species composition, density, DBH, basal area, canopy height, canopy closure, and other ecological factors.
  • Additionally, coastal residents were interviewed to gather information on the history of mangrove change, their motivations to plant mangroves, and their experience planting.
  • They found that tree density and canopy coverage was higher in the plantation plots, but DBH, basal area, tree height and seedling density were higher in the natural forest plots.
  • The authors found that many planters manage their mangrove forests by spacing trees only 20-60cm apart to encourage high densities of small, straight stems for fish trap construction.
  • They explain that the growth of the planted trees is slower than trees in natural forests because of the crowded densities, and the taller trees are often selectively removed by harvesting.
  • Of the planters interviewed, 98.7% had planted Rhizophora mucronata, 5.7% Rhizophora apiculata, and less than 5% had planted Avicennia marina, Nipa fruticans, Sonneratia spp., Bruguiera cylindrica, Ceriops decandra.
  • Because of the high density of stems and little diversity, the authors suggest that the plantation will not effectively catalyze regeneration of a diverse mangrove forest.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Mangrove
  • Country

  • Philippines
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