Resource Details

Initial performance and reforestation potential of 24 tropical tree species planted across a precipitation gradient in the Republic of Panama

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Wishnie, M.H., Dent, D.H., Mariscal, E., Deago, J., Cedeño, N., Ibarra, D., Condit, R. & Ashton, P.M.S. 2007, "Initial performance and reforestation potential of 24 tropical tree species planted across a precipitation gradient in the Republic of Panama", Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 243, no. 1, pp. 39-49.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author: D. H. Dent,


  • Native Species Reforestation Project (PRORENA), Center for Tropical Forest Science, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Unit 0948, APO AA 34002, USA
  • Native Species Reforestation Project (PRORENA), Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 205 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA


Harvard University

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Species Info

  • Acacia mangium (exotic)
  • Albizia adinocephala
  • Albizia guachapele
  • Astronium graveolens
  • Calycophyllum candidissimum
  • Cedrela odorata
  • Colubrina glandulosa
  • Copaifera aromatica
  • Cordia alliodora
  • Diphysa robinioides
  • Dipteryx panamensis (also referred to as Dipteryx oleifera)
  • Enterolobium cyclocarpum
  • Erythrina fusca
  • Gliricidia sepium
  • Guazuma ulmifolia
  • Inga punctata
  • Luehea seemannii
  • Ochroma pyramidale
  • Pachira quinata
  • Samanea saman
  • Spondias mombin
  • Tabebuia rosea
  • Tectona grandis (exotic)
  • Terminalia amazonia


  • In this study, he authors planted trees from twenty-two native species and two exotic species to use in selection trials testing the growth and survivability of trees in plantations in three different sites.
  • The sites were chosen for their precipitation gradient from Soberania National Park (2226mm mean annual rainfall), Los Santos (1946mm rainfall), and Rio Hato (1107mm rainfall).
  • Survival, basal diameter, height, crown diameter and wood volume index (VI) were calculated after 2 years of growth.
  • Survival was over 80% for all sites.
  • The survival and growth were highest in Soberania National Park and lowest in Rio Hato, following the precipitation gradient.
  • Acacia mangium (exotic) and Ochroma pyramidale (native) had the tallest trees with mean heights over 5m.
  • Albizia guachapele and Samanea saman also had high growth at the driest site (Rio Hato) and Spondias mombin and Guazuma ulmifolia grew well at the wetter sites.
  • The largest basal area was reported for A. mangium, Pachira quinata, and O. pyramidale. Copaifera aromatica, inga punctata, and Dipteryx panamensis had the smallest height and diameter growth.
  • Acacia mangium, Diphysa robinoides (nitrogen fixing), Gliricidia sepium (nitrogen fixing), Guazuma ulmifolia and Ochroma pyramidale had the most dense canopy.
  • The authors recommend that the growth and canopy of these species make them favorable selections for soil stabilization and crown cover.
  • They assert that the results of these selection trials can advise plantation design in Panama, but should be considered with caution because of the early age of the plantation.

Related Publications and Projects

Geographical Region

  • Southern Central America
  • Country

  • Panama
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