Resource Details

Tropical Montane Forest Restoration in Costa Rica: Overcoming Barriers to Dispersal and Establishment

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Holl, K.D., Loik, M.E., Lin, E.H.V. & Samuels, I.A. 2000, "Tropical Montane Forest Restoration in Costa Rica: Overcoming Barriers to Dispersal and Establishment", Restoration Ecology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 339-349.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author: K. D. Holl,


  • Department of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, U.S.A.
  • Department of Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, U.S.A.


UC Santa Cruz

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Restoration Ecology

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  • This article provides a review of the factors limiting pasture recovery in tropical montane areas of Costa Rica and how forest managers can implement strategies to overcome these limitations, thereby facilitating ecosystem recovery.
  • Firstly, the authors describe that the lack of seed dispersal from forests into pastures is one of the most important factors limiting the regeneration potential of forest species.
  • Secondly, the competition between seedlings and pasture grasses can limit the survival and growth potential of the seedlings.
  • Other factors include seed predation, low germination, lack of nutrients, high light intensity, and herbivory.
  • To facilitate regeneration despite these limitations, the authors suggest planting native tree seedlings or early-succession shrubs that can shade out grasses and enhance seed dispersal.
  • Along with shading structures that reduce grass cover, perching structures can help increase dispersal.
  • The authors assert that the development of strategies for ecosystem recovery is highly dependent on a good understanding of the biology of an ecosystem.

Geographical Region

  • Southern Central America
  • Country

  • Costa Rica
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