Resource Details

Direct Seeding to Restore Tropical Mature-Forest Species in Areas of Slash-and-Burn Agriculture

Literature: Journal Articles

Bonilla-Moheno, M. & Holl, K.D. 2009, "Direct Seeding to Restore Tropical Mature-Forest Species in Areas of Slash-and-Burn Agriculture", Restoration Ecology, vol. 18, no. S2, pp. 438-445.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author:


  • Environmental Studies Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, U.S.A. 


Restoration Ecology

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Species Info

  • Bronsimum alicastrum
  • Enterolobium cyclocarpum
  • Manilkara zapota


  • As described in this article, direct seeding of three mature-forest species into areas of slash-and-burn agriculture was conducted to evaluate the germination and establishment of these species. Different fallow times were evaluated, less than 5 years, 8-15 years, and greater than 50 years.
  • Germination, survival, and growth for 1-2 years was evaluated for 1800 seeds planted per species (200 on each of three replicate sites per forest age).
  • Percent germination ranged from 5-41% and had no correlation with forest age.
  • Once germinated, survival was high in the older forests (58-95%) and lower in the younger forest (50%).
  • The authors suggest that direct deeding of later-successional species should be introduced after 8 years after the canopy has established.


  • Mexico
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