Resource Details

Seedling survivorship, growth, and response to disturbance in Belizean mangal

Literature: Journal Articles

Ellison, A.M. & Farnsworth, E.J. 1993, "Seedling survivorship, growth, and response to disturbance in Belizean mangal", American Journal of Botany, vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 1137-1145.



  • Department of Biological Sciences, Clapp Laboratory, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts 01075-1484
  • Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Biological Laboratories Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138


American Journal of Botany

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Species Info

  • Rhizophora mangle 
  • Avicennia germinans 


  • This research evaluates the survivorship, seedling growth, and zonation of a mangrove restoration effort in Belize.
  • Propagules of Rhizophora magle and Avicennia germainans were planted at three different tidal elevations: Lowest low water, meav water, and highest high water.
  • After 300 days from planting, Rhizophora mangle seedlings did not survive well in highest high water areas, but exhibited over 50% survival in lowest low water and mean water areas.
  • In lowest low water zones, R. mangle seedlings allocate more biomass to roots. Avicennia germinans only survived (greater than 40%) in the mean water zones.
  • Additionally, the authors tested the survivorship and growth of R. mangle seedlings after removing the intact canopy.
  • The seedlings had higher survivorship and growth as well as less herbivory in the areas where the canopy had been removed.
  • The authors suggest more research is needed to test Avicennia species can grow in the highest high water (despite not surviving in this study) as well as study the other species that grow at the upper elevational margins of a mangrove.


  • Belize
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