Resource Details

An evaluation of direct seeding for reforestation of degraded lands in central São Paulo state, Brazil

Literature: Journal Articles

Engel, V.L. & Parrotta, J.A. 2001, "An evaluation of direct seeding for reforestation of degraded lands in central São Paulo state, Brazil", Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 152, no. 1-3, pp. 169-181.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author:



  • Natural Resources Department, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP/FCA, P.O. Box 237, 18603-970 Botucatu, SP, Brazil
  • International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 25000, Río Piedras, PR 00928-5000, USA


Forest Ecology and Management

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Species Info

  • Chorisia speciosa,
  • Croton floribundus,
  • Enterolobium contorstisiliquum,
  • Mimosa scabrella,
  • Schizolobium parahyba


  • This research presents the seed germination, seedling survival, and early growth rates (two years) of 5 native tree species planted in Sao Paulo state, Brazil.
  • The species were directly seeded in mixed species plots with each tree 1m x 1m apart.
  • The site was treated with suppression and weeding of competing herbaceous vegetation.
  • At 45 days after sowing, Enterolobium contorstisiliquum and Schizolobium parahyba had germination rates of 19-24%, while Croton floribundus and Mimosa scabrella had less than 1.3% germination.
  • After germination, survival rates for E. contorstisiliquum, was high.
  • For Chorisia speciosa, germination was average but seedling survival was very low.
  • Overall germination and seedling survival (especially among Enterlobium contorstisiliquum and Schizolobium parahyba) was adequate for establishing a regenerating stand of 1000-18000 trees per hectare.
  • The authors suggest that more effort on selecting high quality seeds will further improve the viability of directly seeded plantations.

Geographical Region

  • Coastal Atlantic South America
  • Country

  • Brazil
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