Resource Details

Rationales and practices of mangrove afforestation

Literature: Journal Articles

Field, C. 1998, "Rationales and practices of mangrove afforestation", Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 353-358.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author:


  • Faculty of Science (Gore Hill) University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007l, Australia


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  • This research presents guidelines for the site selection and planting of mangroves in tropical coastal areas.
  • When choosing a site, the authors recommend land that is shallow, muddy, non-eroding, with sufficient fresh-water input, and relatively sheltered from fierce winds or currents. If natural regeneration is possible, it can be desired as it closely reflects the species in the nearby forest and is less expensive to establish.
  • Actively transferring seeds, collecting seeds or propagules from the wild, or raising seedlings or saplings under nursery conditions, are all forms of artificial regeneration.
  • In artificial regeneration the species composition and distribution can be controlled, and genetically improved varieties can be introduced.
  • The author stresses the need for applied ecological research that can test decisions made when restoring mangroves.

Geographical Region

  • General
  • Ecosystems

  • Mangrove
  • Country

  • General
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