Resource Details

Ecological considerations for using dipterocarps for restoration of lowland rainforest in Southeast Asia

Literature: Journal Articles

Kettle, C. 2010, "Ecological considerations for using dipterocarps for restoration of lowland rainforest in Southeast Asia", Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1137-1151.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author:


  • Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Ecosystem Management, ETH Zurich, CHN G73.2, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland


Biodiversity and Conservation

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Species Info

Species of Dipterocarpaceae or dipterocarps


  • In this article, the authors present ecological factors that should be considered when engaging in dipterocarp forest restoration in Southeast Asia.
  • Because many dipterocarps are insect pollinated, have poor seed dispersal, have low density of reproductive adults, and have recalcitrant seeds, planting of nursery-reared tree seedlings could increase the ability of dipterocarp forests to regenerate.
  • To overcome the competition with the invasive grass Imperata cylindrica, the authors recommend planting light demanding nurse species followed by underplanting with dipterocarp species.
  • Because of the seed and reproductive problems of dipterocarps the establishment of nurseries have not been highly successful. Additionally, the habitat fragmentation of dipterocarp forests have led to elevated inbreeding of certain populations.
  • Wildlings (or seedlings found in the forest) can be beneficial, but there are possible negative impact to natural regeneration in the forest. The authors recommend the creation of scientifically informed seed orchards established from genetically diverse seedlings and wildlings.
  • These orchards can offer the opportunity for more research into site specificity of different provenances.
  • Furthermore, the authors encourage more research into the how dipterocarp species divide taxonomically with respect to their site specificity for soil, light, and successional stage.
  • Finally, inoculation of soils with appropriate mycorrhizal fungi and post-planting maintenance can further improve the potential for success of dipterocarp forest restoration projects.



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