Resource Details

Amazonian forest restoration: an innovative system for native species selection based on phenological data and field performance indices

Literature: Journal Articles

Knowles, O.H. & Parrotta, J.A. 1995, "Amazonian forest restoration: an innovative system for native species selection based on phenological data and field performance indices", Commonwealth Forestry Review, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 230-243.


  • Mineracao Rio do Norte s.a., Porto Trombetas, Para, Brazil


In Library

Species Info

160 native tree taxa were evaluated. These are the taxa that were ranked most highly suitable:

  • Spondias lutea
  • Caryocar villosum
  • Hevea brasilensis
  • Hevea guianesis
  • Dipteryx magnifica
  • Dipteryx odorata
  • Tabebuia spp.
  • Ceiba pentadra
  • Aparisthmium and Conceveiba spp. 
  • Joannesia hevioides
  • Hymenaea courbaril
  • Hymenaea intermedia
  • Schizolobium amazonicum
  • Enterlobioum maximum
  • Parkia gigantacarpu
  • Parkia spp.
  • Belucia dichotoma
  • Tapirira guianensis
  • Aspidosperma cf. eteatum
  • Couma guianensis
  • Schlefflera morototoni
  • Jacaranda copaia
  • Goupia glabra
  • Sloanea grandis
  • Cassia sp. 
  • Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum
  • Bowdichia spp. 
  • Bowdichia cf. nitida
  • Hymenolobium excelsum
  • Hymenolobium sp. 
  • Vataireopsis speciosa
  • Cedrela odorata
  • Swietenia macrophylla
  • Spathelia excelsa
  • Simaruba amara

Need shadier conditions initially, but otherwise were high performers:

  • Caryocar glabrum
  • Couepia longipedunculo
  • Bertholletia excelsa
  • Inga spp.
  • Andira sp.
  • Carapa guianensis


  • In this article, researchers present data from the 14 years of evaluating native species from primary forests in Para State Brazil for their potential as reforestation trees on a bauxite mine.
  • For 160 species of moist forest trees, the authors determined the fruiting months, dispersal mechanisms, the ease of seed collection, the viability and treatments needed to break dormancy in seeds, planting stock selection, and early performance in the bauxite site plantation.
  • For animal dispersed species, the authors found that fruit production most often occurred in wetter months Dec-May while, for wind dispersed species, the fruit production most often occurred during the dry months Aug-Dec.
  • With respect to viability, only 27% of species have seeds that maintain viability for over 6 months.
  • The majority of species (71%) did not require scarification to break dormancy.
  • Considering planting method, direct seeding was the most favorable for 21% of taxa, use of wildlings for 49% of taxa, and nursery-grown seedlings for 22% of taxa.
  • For early performance in the plantation setting, 37% of species were rated 'good' which was defined as having vigorous shoot growth and higher than 75% survival in the first two years since planting.
  • The authors used these results to determine a ranking system for the species of the most favorable for use in reforestation.
  • The most highly ranked sun tolerant species were Spondias lutea, Caryocar villosum, Hevea brasilensis, Hevea guianesis, Dipteryx magnifica, and Dipteryx odorata.
  • The authors explain that the restoration potential of many native species is relatively unknown due to lack of knowledge about these important silvicultural and nursery aspects of selecting and growing trees in a plantation.
  • They assert that this study demonstrates the ability to gather large amounts of data on many native tree species with relatively low cost.
  • They recommend that their systematic approach be utilized by other programs to guide reforestation projects.

Related Publications and Projects

Geographical Region

  • Amazon Basin
  • Country

  • Brazil
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