Resource Details

Selecting seed trees for a forest restoration program: A case study using Spondias axillaris Roxb. (Anacardiaceae)

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Pakkad, G., Torre, F., Elliott, S. & Blakesley, D. 2003, "Selecting seed trees for a forest restoration program: A case study using Spondias axillaris Roxb. (Anacardiaceae)", Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 182, no. 1-3, pp. 363-370.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author:


  • Horticulture Research International, West Malling, Kent ME19 6BJ, United Kingdom
  • Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand


Forest Ecology and Management

Selecting the link above redirects this page to the article on the journal website where the online material can be purchased or accessed if with subscription. For more information on access, see sidebar.

Also available at no cost


  • Since 1993, Thailand has been promoting projects to use native tree species to restore degraded forest.
  • The organization Forest Restoration Research Unit (FORRU) began in 1997 to test species to be used in restoration.
  • One species that did very well in species selection trials was Spondias axillaris.
  • The seeds of this species are drupes with a hard pyrene around the seed. In this study, the authors tested the germination and early growth of S. axillaris seeds from a variety of parent trees.
  • The authors found that low germination (43%) occurs in the nursury tested.
  • Seeds with smaller pyrenes were found to germinate more rapidly than those with larger pyrenes.
  • Once germinated, the survival of seedlings planted in the nursury was high, with 38 seed trees producing saplings with over 70% survival.
  • Meanwhile, saplings planted in the field had high survival rates, with 27 seed trees producing saplings with over 70% survival.
  • This study helped the authors to create standards for selecting the best seed trees to use for gathering seeds for regeneration: 1) 70% seedling survival in the field, 2) 100cm sapling height after the first growing season in the field, 3) 40% germination in the nursery, and 4) 70% seedling survival in the nursery.
  • Of the 41 seed trees considered in this study, 12 met all of these standards.

Related Publications and Projects

Geographical Region

  • Mainland Southeast Asia
  • Country

  • Thailand
  • This database is a work in progress, and we need your input to keep it up to date. Feel free to contact ELTI at to provide information on your own work as well as other projects and literature currently missing from the database.


    ELTI is a joint initiative of:
    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute