Resource Details

Direct seeding for forest restoration on abandoned agricultural land in Northern Thailand

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Woods, K. & Elliott, S. 2004, "Direct seeding for forest restoration on abandoned agricultural land in Northern Thailand", Journal of Tropical Forest Science, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 248-259.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author:


  • Yale University, Sch. of Forest./Environ. Studies, 205 Prospect St., New Haven, CT 06511, United States
  • Forest Restoration Research Unit, Biology Department, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand


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Species Info

  • Sapindus rarak
  • Lithocarpus elegans 
  • Spondias axillaris 
  • Erythrina subumbrans


  • One problem with using direct seeding in reforestation is the predation and desiccation of the seeds.
  • In this research, authors tested the effect of scarification, burial, mulch application, and scarification with burial to determine the germination speed of four native species (Sapindus rarak, Lithocarpus elegans, Spondias axillaris, Erythrina subumbrans) in northern Thailand.
  • The authors found that ants, not rodents, were the most prevalent seed predators.
  • Additionally, scarification (without burial) did not speed the time to germination and instead lead to faster desiccation and increased predation.
  • Burial, however, significantly increased the germination of all species and accelerated germination in S. rarak and S. axillaris seeds. In L. elegans, mulching increased germination success and decreased predation.
  • The authors assert that burial of seeds when directly seeding restoration plots can offer a more cost-effective alternative to planting nursury-raised seedlings.

Related Publications and Projects

Geographical Region

  • Mainland Southeast Asia
  • Country

  • Thailand
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