Resource Details

Case investigation on the participation of women in reforestation in the Philippines

Literature: Books or Book Chapters

Castillo, E.T., Siapno, F.E. & Abrigo, R.O. 1999, Case investigation on the participation of women in reforestation in the Philippines: Case Study 2, ERDB, Quezon City.


In Library

Species Info

  • Pinus kesiya
  • Eucalyptus spp. (exotic)


  • This article describes a reforestation project in the Karao and Ekip watershed of the Philippines.
  • Trees of a native pine, Pinus kesiya, and exotic Eucalyptus were planted through small-scale projects lead by gatherings of families called Peoples Organizations.
  • Special attention is paid to the role that woman had in the project and the perspectives of the men on the participation of women.
  • The authors describe that for planning meetings and for making large influences on the project, the women had minimal involvement because of the common belief that women were unfit to participate in those aspects.
  • But, the women were instrumental in the project in other ways.
  • One leader, Mr. James Panayo, explained that women were more involved in various activities because the men were pre-occupied with their farming activities. For one family, the Callos, the wife was directly in charge of the reforestation from nursery establishment to caring for the planted seedlings.
  • Her family helped with some of the household responsibilities so that Mrs. Callo could work on the reforestation project.
  • Mr. Callo recognizes that about 80% of the labor for his project was conducted by women.
  • In general, women were reported to be important components of the lighter activities such as maintaining the nursery, potting, watering, weeding, and applying fertilizers.
  • For the plantation establishment, or outplanting, men were more often involved instead of women.
  • The interviewed men described the women as more diligent and patient, though slower, than men.
  • Despite the building of firebreaks, the reforestation project had a great deal of problems with forest fires.
  • Delayed payments of laborers caused seedlings to get unattended, and therefore high mortality rates.
  • Nevertheless, the local residents recognize the importance of reforestation to improving their community and quality of life.
  • The authors describe the women's participation as providing the backbone of the project.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • Philippines
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