Resource Details

Potential of Agroforestry and Plantation Systems in Indonesia for Carbon Stocks: an Economic Perspective

Literature: Available at NO COST Manuals, Guides, Reports

Ginoga, K., Wulan, Y.C., & Lugina, M. 2005. "Potential of Agroforestry and Plantation Systems in Indonesia for Carbon Stocks: an Economic Perspective" Carbon Working Paper CC14, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.


  • Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
  • Center for Socio-Economic Research on Forestry (CESERF), Bogor, INDONESIA


Available at no cost

Species Info

  • Lansium domesticum
  • Aleurites moluccana
  • Areca catechu
  • Nephelium lappaceum
  • Durio zibethinus
  • Paraserianthes falcataria
  • Artocarpus heterophyllus 
  • Coffea robusta (exotic)
  • Dalbergia latifolia (exotic)
  • Mangifera indica (exotic)
  • Ceiba pentandra (exotic)
  • Psidium guajava (exotic)
  • Citrus nobilis (exotic)
  • Persea americana (exotic)
  • Cinnamomum burmannii
  • Gliricidia sepium (exotic)
  • Erythrina subumbrans
  • Eugenia aromatica
  • Eugenia malaccensis (Syzygium malaccense)
  • Pithecellobium jiringa (Archidendron pauciflorum)
  • Quercus sundaica (Lithocarpus sundaicus)
  • Curcuma longa
  • Amomum compactum
  • Musa spp.
  • Ananas comosus (exotic)


  • This article discusses the potential for carbon sequestration services in various agroforestry systems in Indonesia.
  • The systems specifically discussed are shade based coffee (Coffea robusta), fruit based coffee, timber based coffee, rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), pinang (Areca catechu), mango (Mangifera indica), macang (Mangifera spp), candle nut (Aleurites moluccana), durian (Durio zibethinus), duku (Lansium domesticum), and sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) systems.
  • All of the systems sequestered carbon, but the highest were Rambutan, Mango, Macang, Candle Nut, Durian, and Duku.
  • The coffee systems and sengon system had the highest employment potential.
  • Additionally Mango systems had the highest financial returns.
  • All systems had a positive Net Present Value (NPV), and hence have been demonstrated to be economically and financially beneficial. 
  • The authors assert that these agroforestry systems provide both financial and economic profits while also contributing to the mitigation of global warming. 

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • Indonesia
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    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute