Resource Details

Tree plantations in the Philippines and Thailand: Economic, Social, and Environmental Evaluation

Literature: Available at NO COST Manuals, Guides, Reports

Niskanen, A. & Saastamoinen, O. 1996, "Tree plantations in the Philippines and Thailand: Economic, Social, and Environmental Evaluation", World Institute for Development Economics Research - Research For Action 30.

Affiliations

  • World Institute for Development Economics Research, United Nations University, Helsinki, Finland

Link(s)

Available at no cost at World Institute for Development Economics Research

Description

  • This research report first discusses tropical plantations in global forestry, emphasizing that tree plantations presently include much a wider range of categories, purposes, species variety and management forms than is commonly perceived.
  • The study states that although industrial forest plantations are mainly established solely for economic reasons, private farm-forestry and governmental plantations more often have a variety of reasons for establishment.
  • These reasons include expectations for positive social and environmental impacts of forest plantations, e.g. increased household security and soil conservation.
  • Nevertheless the environmental and social impacts of plantations deserve much concern and the second part of the study widely reviews environmental and social but also economic impacts of plantations, all of which can be either negative or positive.
  • One of the major problems in developing plantation forestry has been that the profitability analysis of plantations has based only on the economic criteria.
  • Although financial profitability can be regarded as the most important single evaluation criteria for forest plantations in the tropics, the negative and positive social and environmental impacts should also be attempted to be included into the analysis.
  • The focus of the empirical part of the work, therefore, has been to study to what extent it presently is possible to monetize the varying impacts of tree plantations and incorporate them into the "multilevel" profitability analysis.
  • In two case study countries, Thailand and the Philippines, the profitability of industrial, community based and private reforestation was assessed for two most commonly used tree species in reforestation.
  • The profitability assessments were aimed to be carried out at four different levels: based on comparisons between costs and benefits in market prices (financial profitability), economic efficiency prices (economic profitability), economic efficiency prices with the distributional weigh assessments (socio-economic profitability), and finally with including monetary valuation of environmental impacts into the economic analysis (environmental-economic profitability).

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