Resource Details

Farm forestry: an alternative to government-driven reforestation in the Philippines

Literature: Journal Articles

Pasicolan, P.N., Udo de Haes, H.A. & Sajise, P.E. 1997, "Farm forestry: an alternative to government-driven reforestation in the Philippines", Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 99, no. 1-2, pp. 261-274.

Contact Info



  • College of Forestry and Environmental Management, Isabela State University, Cabagan, Isabela, Philippines
  • Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
  • SEAMEO-SEARCA, UPLB College, Laguna, Philippines


Forest Ecology & Management

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  • In the Philippines, millions of dollars have gone to employ people to plant trees as part of reforestation program.
  • Meanwhile, the authors explain that only about 10% of those planted areas are successful.
  • The authors assert that paying people to plant trees is unsustainable and often hindered by the lack of prompt release of funding.
  • Instead, they present a review of literature and various case studies of growing trees at the farm level by rural farmers.
  • The six case studies presented demonstrate that the farmers' household needs for fuelwood and other products was a strong enough incentive for them to grow trees on their farms. Much of the use was intercropping with agricultural crops and livestock.
  • The farmers used nitrogen fixing trees to improve their soil and supply supplemental nutrition to their grazing animals. Self-sufficiency for fuelwood was the first good, but when abundant, farmers also sold fuelwood to the people and small businesses in the nearby towns.
  • Overall, the authors suggest that this "bottom-up" tree planting by rural farmers is more effective in the long-run than "top-down" government initiatives to plant trees.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • Philippines
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