Resource Details

Seed Dispersal by Birds and Bats in Lowland Philippine Forest Successional Area

Literature: Journal Articles

Gonzales, R.S., Ingle, N.R., Lagunzad, D.A. & Nakashizuka, T. 2009, "Seed Dispersal by Birds and Bats in Lowland Philippine Forest Successional Area", Biotropica, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 452-458.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author:


  • Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
  • Institute of Biology, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
  • Wildlife Conservation Society of the Philippines, 309 6th A Street, Ecoland, Davao City 8021, Philippines



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  • The variety of ways that seeds disperse into a disturbed site affects the diversity of species that regenerate.
  • This article looks at the role of bat and bird dispersal in the regeneration of a disturbed forest on the Luzon Island of the Philippines.
  • Seed traps (1 x 1 m) were constructed and seven seed traps were placed at each point along a gradient of proximity to forest: along the forest edge and at 20, 40, 60, and 80 meters from the forest edge.
  • The traps captured an abundance of wind-dispersed seeds, which is characteristic of early-successional species.
  • However, unlike the typical paradigm, the even more animal-dispersed seed species were found on the site.
  • Bird dispersal was greater than bat dispersal in terms of seed abundance and species diversity. This predominance by birds was even higher in the dry season.
  • Dispersal was greater in areas with more fleshy-fruited trees, which attract the brids and bats, in closer proximity to the sample point.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Country

  • Philippines
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