Resource Details

Rehabilitation of Tropical Rainforests Based on Indigenous Species for Degraded Areas in Sarawak, Malaysia

Literature: Books or Book Chapters

Azani, A.M., Majid, N.M., & Meguro, S. 2001, "Rehabilitation of Tropical Rainforests Based on Indigenous Species for Degraded Areas in Sarawak, Malaysia", in Rehabilitation of Tropical Degraded Forest Ecosystems, eds. S. Kobayashi, J.W. Tunbull, T. Toma, T. Mori, N.M.N.A Majid. Workshop Proceedings 2-4 November 1999, Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia, pp. 141-148.

Contact Info


  • Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Japan Center for International Studies in Ecology, Yokohama, Japan


Available at no cost.

Species Info

  • Calophyllum ferrugenium
  • Cotylelobium burkii
  • Dryobalanops aromatica
  • Durio carinatus
  • Eugenia sp.
  • Eusideroxylon zwageri
  • Hopea beccariana
  • Hopea kerangasensis
  • Parashorea parvifolia
  • Pentaspodon motleyi
  • Shorea gibbosa
  • Shorea leprosula
  • Shorea macrophylla
  • Shorea materialis
  • Shorea mecistopteryx
  • Shorea ovata
  • Vatica nitens
  • Whitodendron moultianum


  • This paper describes the results of a study of native species planted in areas of abandoned shifting cultivation in Sarawak Malaysia
  • There were different site contitions in which species were planted, open conditions (A: severely eroded and compacted areas and B: man-made mounds) and shady conditions (Site C: Macaranga secondary forest and Site D: grasses and undergrowth).
  • Growth and survival was recorded for 60-72 months, depending on the site.
  • Survival rate in the man-made mounds (site B) was higher than in the compacted areas (site A), which the authors suggest was caused by the good aeration of the topsoil in the mound, more nutrients, good drainage, and less weed competition for the site.
  • In site B, the species with the highest survival were Shorea macrophylla (80%), Pentaspodon motleyi (80%), Shorea macistopteryx (67%), and Whitodendron moultianum (55%).
  • Survival rates for shade tolerant species were very low in the open sites.
  • In the shadier sites (C and D), survival rates were higher (between 40 and 80% for site C and over 60% for site D), except when species were so small that they could not compete with weed growth.
  • Based on growth, the authors divide the species into three categories:
  • Light Demanding Species: Shorea ovata, Shorea mecistopteryx, Dryobalanops aromatica, Pentaspondon motleyi and Whiteodendron moultianum.
  • Shade Tolerant Species: Shroea macrophylla, Shorea gibbosa, Shorea materialis, Parashorea parvifolia, Hopea beccariana, Cotylelobium burckii, Calophyllum ferrugenium, Durio carinatus, and Eusideroxylon zwageri.
  • Late Growth Species: Hopea kerangasensis, Eugenia sp., and Vatica sp.
  • Overall the authors recommend using mixtures of Shorea ovata, Shorea mecistopteryx, Shorea macrophyllan, Dryobalanops aromatica, Parashorea parvifolia, Hopea beccariana, Durio carinatus, and Eusideroxylon zwageri.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Country

  • Malaysia
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