Resource Details

The Lembo System: A model for Agroforestry in Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems of East Kalimantan

Literature: Books or Book Chapters

Sardjono, M.A. 1996, "The Lembo System: A model for Agroforestry in Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems of East Kalimantan" in Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management, eds. A. Schulte & D. Schone, World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 354-368.


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Species Info

The most important species occuring on Lembos are:

  • Mangifera decandra
  • Mangifera foetida
  • Mangifera indica
  • Mangifera odorata
  • Mangifera pajang
  • Mangifera torquenda
  • Durio kutejensis
  • Durio oxleyanus
  • Durio zibethinus
  • Shorea macrophylla
  • Shorea pinanga
  • Aleurites moluccana
  • Baccaurea macrocarpa
  • Baccaurea racemosa
  • Lansium domesticum
  • Artocarpus champeden
  • Dimocarpus cf. longan
  • Nephelum cuspidatum
  • Nephelum lappaceum
  • Nephelum ramboutan-ake
  • Nephelum uncinatum
  • Areca catechu
  • Arenga pinnata
  • Calamus caesius
  • Calamus manan
  • Cocos nucifera
  • Coffea spp (exotic)
  • Ananas comosus (exotic)


  • This article describes the Lembo system of agroforestry, a traditional practice by the Dayak people in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.
  • In Lembo gardens, around 127 species of woody plants are cultivated, and up to 40 different species can be found per 0.25 ha 90% of which are trees. In those gardens, there is also a large diversity of wild, uncultivated plants.
  • The most and indigenous species, with some exotics, and the common families are Anacardiaceae, Bombacaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Euparbiaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Sapindaceae, Palmae and Rubiaceae.
  • Traditionally, the cultivators of the Lembo system were able to occupy land if no one was using it; however, this practice has become more difficult with recent governmental requirements of certification of ownership.
  • The author asserts that the Lembo system is both ecologically and socioeconomically valuable, and it should be considered and encouraged by land-use planners seeking sustainable management and forest restoration.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • Indonesia
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    ELTI is a joint initiative of:
    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute