Resource Details

A Case Study Assessment of Agroforestry: The Panama Canal Watershed

Literature: Journal Articles

Hauff, R.D. 1999, "A Case Study Assessment of Agroforestry: The Panama Canal Watershed", Journal of Sustainable Forestry, vol. 8, no. 3-4, pp. 39-51.


  • Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA
  • USDA Forest Service Institute of Pacific Islands, RO. Box 82, Kosrae State, Federated Sates of Micronesia, 96944, USA


Journal of Sustainable Forestry

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  • This article provides a qualitative assessment of three different agroforestry sites in the Panama Canal watershed based on the following criteria: management objectives, project life span, incentives, technology, economic feasibility, community involvement, and extension.
  • Each of the criteria and its implications to agroforestry is briefly explained.
  • The three sites reviewed in the article vary in project design, accessibility, and economic well-being of participants.
  • The success of the agroforestry project examined in the first site was most likely due to its proximity to a large city, which allowed participants to earn higher wages and provided easy access for the sale of cash crops.
  • The second agroforestry site is critiqued by the author for not fully incorporating agriculture into its agroforestry plots, pointing out that excessive crown cover prevents the growth of crops.
  • The author’s analysis of the third site highlights conflict between participants and the project, due primarily to the social transition underway in the community which has led to differing management objectives.
  • In the case of the third case study, the author emphasizes the importance of finding management solutions that both parties agree on.
  • The author exerts that careful consideration must be given to both social and biophysical factors with regard to agroforestry projects, and that designs must be site specific in order to be successful.  

Geographical Region

  • Southern Central America
  • Ecosystems

  • General
  • Country

  • Panama
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