Resource Details

Rehabilitation and Restoration of Degraded Forests

Literature: Books or Book Chapters Available at NO COST

Lamb, D. & Gilmour, D. 2003, "Rehabilitation and Restoration of Degraded Forests", International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK, and World Wildlife Fund, Gland, Switzerland.


  • International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK
  • World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Gland, Switzerland



Full Access to this document is available for no cost at the link above.


  • This book offers a comprehensive overview of rehabilitation and restoration at the landscape and local levels, providing information on the factors which are known to impact succession, as well as different approaches to reforestation depending on whether the goal is focused more on biodiversity recovery or production and the provision of services.
  • The importance of including human well-being along with ecological well-being into any plan for rehabilitation or restoration is discussed, implying that local interest may be a key indicator in reforestation success.
  • In order for natural succession to take place, a number of conditions must be met: 1) the disturbance must be removed, 2) Plants and animals must remain to recolonize the area, 3) the soils must not be overly degraded, and 4) Weeds and pests must be excluded.
  • If these conditions are not met, it is necessary to adapt the reforestation approach, possibly by incorporation more tolerant species and/or a more modest biodiversity goal.
  • Reforestation has commonly been carried out in plantation monocultures, and, in the tropics species from just four genera (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Acacia and Tectona) make up the majority of plantation plantings.
  • Lists of potential site types and potential species types (including the function of the species type) for restoration or rehabilitation interventions are included, as well as a list of success indicators.
  • The article describes several case studies from around the world which highlight various restoration and rehabilitation approaches and results. 
  • The authors conclude that restoration and rehabilitation efforts must take into account ecological, economic and social factors, and will necessarily require varied treatments across the landscape.

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