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The role of animal seed dispersal in accelerating native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Wunderle Jr., J.M. 1997, "The role of animal seed dispersal in accelerating native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands", Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 99, no. 1-2, pp. 223-235.


  • International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, PO Box 490, Palmer, PR 00721, USA


U.S. Forest Service

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Forest Ecology and Management

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  • This article provides information on the role of seed-dispersal in forest regeneration.
  • In natural forest, species with animal-dispersed species tend to predominated in both early and mid-stages of succession, while wind-dispersed species tend to be vines and canopy species.
  • The implications of wind versus animal seed dispersal are briefly summarized.
  • Traits of the site which attract seed dispersers are also discussed, including the use of perches, increased structural complexity of the vegetation and the presence of fruiting plants.
  • With regard to perches, the author states that perches attract bird seed dispersers when at a height above the level of herbaceous vegetation. 
  • The distance of a site to a potential seed source, as well as the size of the seeds affect natural regeneration success.
  • Relative to small seeds, the seed dispersal range of large seeds is proportionally much smaller. 
  • The author recommends careful consideration of these implications when implementing a restoration plan relying on some natural regeneration, including the use of perches, fruit-bearing trees, appropriate species composition, and enrichment planting of large seeded species.

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