Resource Details

Early growth of native and exotic trees planted on degraded tropical pasture

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Carpenter, F.L., Nichols, J.D., and Sandi, E. 2004, "Early growth of native and exotic trees planted on degraded tropical pasture", Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 196, no. 2-3, pp. 367-378.


  • Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
  • Sustainable Forestry Program, School of Environmental Science and Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia
  • Apdo. 237, San Vito, Costa Rica


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Species Info

  • Vochysia guatemalensis
  • Terminalia amazonia
  • Calophyllum brasiliense
  • Tabebuia ochracea
  • Cedrela odorata
  • Eucalyptus deglupta (exotic)
  • Pinus tecunumanii (exotic)


  • This article details the results of a study of the potential of two exotic and five native tree species to restore degraded land in Costa Rica.
  • Thirty blocks were established over 25 hectares of abandoned cattle pasture and tree height was measured at 3 and 7 years and tree survival was measured after 7 years.
  • Across all of the blocks, P. tecunumanii exhibited the best growth and survival, while three native species (V. guatemalensis, T. amazonia, and C. brasilense) exhibited moderate growth and survival.
  • The highest mortality rates were observed in T. ochracea and E. deglupta.
  • The effects of erosion on survivorship and growth were also tested, with a negative correlation found between erosion and survival and/or growth in 5 of the 7 species; only P. tecunumanii did not appear to be affected by erosion.
  • The authors recommend utilizing the three more successful native species (V. guatemalensis, T. amazonia, and C. brasilense) on less eroded sites, while preference may be given to P. tecunumanii  on highly eroded sites.
  • The authors hypothesize that the pine species may have performed better than the natives species because it is ectomycorrhizal, suggesting that native species success may be improved with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation. 

Geographical Region

  • Southern Central America
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • Costa Rica
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