Resource Details

Assisted natural regeneration: Methods, results and issues relevant to sustained participation by communitie

Literature: Books or Book Chapters Available at NO COST Manuals, Guides, Reports

Dugan, P. 2000. “Assisted natural regeneration: Methods, results and issues relevant to sustained participation by communities” in Forest Restoration for Wildlife Conservation: Proceedings of a Workshop with the International Tropical Timber Organization and the Forest Restoration Research Unit, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, eds. Elliott, S., Kerby, J., Blakesley, D., Hardwick, K., Woods, K. and V. Anusarnsunthorn, pp. 195-199.


  • Bagong Pagasa Foundation, 445 Bulusan Lane, Marian Lakeview Park, Paraaque 1700, Metro Manila, Philippines.  


Available at no cost

Species Info

  • Durio zibethinus
  • Garcinia lateriflora
  • Lansium domesticum
  • Nephilium lappaceum


  • This chapter of a Forest Restoration Research Unit publication presents a case study of restoration in Kandis village on Palawan Island, Philippines and its progress with assisted natural regeneration (ANR), with a focus on the social issues that affect success of ANR projects.
  • A conservation and development program funded by the Japanese government is using the ANR approach in its reforestation projects in Kandis.  This approach primarily entails fire prevention, ring-weeding, and flattening of grasses.
  • After 3 years, 89 tree species in 37 families were identified in regenerating areas.
  • The author asks why ANR has not been more widely implemented, considering its effectiveness and low cost in comparison to other techniques.
  • The author cites the focus on tree planting in reforestation efforts, poor understanding by foresters of successional pathways, the structure of development programs, which usually do not take a process approach, impractical monitoring systems to measure success of reforestation, and failure of the government to provide incentives to local communities to conserve forests as reasons that ANR has not been more widely adopted.
  • The author suggests use of satellite imagery and assessment of annual variation of stream flow during the dry season as more appropriate methods of monitoring than relying solely on survival rates.
  • The author cites the success of community-based restoration programs, but acknowledges a general resistance to them by the government and by foresters.
  • Importantly, all forest stakeholders are concerned with water, as determined by an assessment carried out by an international team of foresters.  The author suggests that water, rather than timber, be the central issue in negotiating forest management strategies.


Related Publications and Projects

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Country

  • Philippines
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