Resource Details

New options for land rehabilitation and landscape ecology in Southeast Asia by "rainforestation farming"

Literature: Journal Articles

Goeltenboth, F. & Hutter, C.-P. 2004, "New options for land rehabilitation and landscape ecology in Southeast Asia by "rainforestation farming", Journal for Nature Conservation, vol. 12, pp. 181-189.

Contact Info

Corresponding author: (F. Goeltenboth)


  • University of Hohenheim, Institute for Plantproduction and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, Garbenstr. 13, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany
  • EURONATUR, Bahnhofstr. 35, D-71638 Ludwigsburg, Germany

Species Info

  • Dracontomelon dao
  • Koordersiodendron pinnata
  • Rademachera pinnata
  • Afzelia rhomboidea
  • Intsia bijuga
  • Terminalia catappa
  • Diospyros blancoi
  • Pterocarpus indicus
  • Melia dubia
  • Toona sureni
  • Artocarpus communis
  • Eucalyptus deglupta
  • Agathis philippinensis
  • Anisoptera thurifera
  • Dipterocarpus grandiflorus
  • Hopea acuminata
  • Hopea plagata
  • Parashora malaanonan
  • Shorea almon
  • Shorea asamica
  • Shorea contorta
  • Shorea negrosensis
  • Shorea palosapis
  • Shorea polysperma


  •  The authors describe a methodology for reforestation called "Rainforestation Farming" developed in the Philippines in the 1990s to restore forest cover on degraded lands covered with Imperata cylindrica grass in the Visayas region
  • The methodology, a "closed canopy and high diversity forest farming system", is based on the hypothesis that the closer the species composition to local native forest, the more sustainable farming systems in the humid tropics will be.
  • Rainforestation integrates native timber tree species (pioneers and shade tolerants) with fruit trees planted at high stocking rates (2m x 2m) to shade out the grass and provide differentiated income sources. Shade tolerant crops including Dioscorea spp., Xanthosoma spp. and Musa textilis were planted in the understory.
  • The method was tested in a demonstration farm and in several sites on the island of Leyte to test site requirements for different species. Community organizers were hired to provide technical assitance and to support communities in establishing protection for mother trees as source of planting stock.
  • According to the authors, farmer income increased by about 8% in the first 4-5 years, from sale of low-quality timber, and first fruit harvests. Rotation age is expected to be 12 years for higher-quality timber species.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Country

  • Philippines
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