Resource Details

Manual of Reforestation and Erosion Control for the Philippines

Literature: Available at NO COST Manuals, Guides, Reports

Agpaoa, A., Endangan, D., Festin, S., Gumayagay, J., Hoenninger, Th., Seeber, G., Unkel, K., & Weidelt, H.J. 1976, "Manual of reforestation and erosion control for the Philippines", German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Eschborn, p. 569


German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GTZ) - now Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)


Available at no cost at


Species Info

Many aspects of this manual can be applied worldwide. Country specific species mentioned include:

  • Acacia farnesiana (exotic)
  • Agathis philippinensis
  • Albizzia falcata
  • Albizzia lebbekoides
  • Albizzia procera
  • Aleurites trisperma
  • Aleurites moluccana
  • Aleurites fordii (exotic)
  • Alnus maritima ?
  • Anthocephalus chinensis (Anthocephalus cadamba)
  • Bauhinia malabarica
  • Calophyllum inophyllum
  • Casuarina equisetifolia
  • Casuarina rumphiana
  • Casuarina montana (Casuarina junghuniana) (exotic)
  • Cryptomeria japonica (exotic)
  • Dipterocarp species (Dipterocarpaceae)
  • Endospermum peltatum
  • Eucalyptus camaldulensis (exotic)
  • Eucalyptus citriodora (exotic)
  • Eucalyptus deglupta
  • Eucalyptus robusta (exotic)
  • Eucalyptus saligna (exotic)
  • Eucalyptus grandis (exotic)
  • Gliricidia sepium (exotic)
  • Gmelina arborea
  • Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena glauca) (exotic)
  • Mangifera indica (exotic or naturalized)
  • Pinus caribaea var hondurensis (exotic)
  • Pinus insularis (Pinus khasya)
  • Pinus merkusii
  • Pinus oocarpa (exotic)
  • Pithecolobium dulce (exotic)
  • Psidium guaba (exotic)
  • Pterocarpus indicus
  • Pterocarpus vidalianus
  • Samanea saman (exotic)
  • Sesbania grandiflora
  • Swietenia macrophylla (exotic)
  • Swietenia mahogani (exotic)
  • Tectona grandis (exotic)
  • Toona calantas
  • Vitex parviflora


  • This manual provides a detailed guide to reforestation, including information species selection, nursery techniques, site preparation and plantation design, weed and fire control, stand improvement and other practical aspects of establishing and managing tree plantations.
  • Additionally, there is a large portion devoted to erosion control, using trees and engineered structures to stabilize slopes and decrease the velocity of water runoff.
  • Specific to the Philippines, the authors describe over forty species (native and exotic) with respect to their abilities in plantations as well as the possibilities for taungya systems (historic agroforestry systems). 
  • The species and site based information is most appropriate for work in the Philippines, however, much of the book, especially the plantation design and maintenance, nursery techniques, and erosion control is relevant to reforestation in other regions.

Geographical Region

  • General
  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • This database is a work in progress, and we need your input to keep it up to date. Feel free to contact ELTI at to provide information on your own work as well as other projects and literature currently missing from the database.


    ELTI is a joint initiative of:
    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute