Resource Details

Low technology tree propagation and the restoration of natural forest ecosystems

Literature: Books or Book Chapters Available at NO COST

Blakesley, E., Elliott, S., and Anusarnsunthorn, V. 1998, “Low technology tree propagation and the restoration of natural forest ecosystems” in Tree Biotechnology: Towards the Millennium, eds. M.R. Davey, P.G. Anderson, K.C. Lowe and J.B. Power, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, pp.31-44.


  • Forest Restoration Research Unit (FORRU), Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand


Available at no cost

Species Info

  • Hovenia dulcis


  • This chapter outlines the need for reforestation in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Thailand, and describes the nursery and propagation processes necessary for successful production of native species for reforestation.
  • The authors cite the importance of restoration for in situ conservation and the fact that the biological and social aspects of restoration have not been given appropriate attention.  Recent policies in Thailand have strongly encouraged native species reforestation, but lack of information on propagation and planting techniques has slowed the process.
  • The Forest Restoration Research Unit (FORRU) was established to address the need for information on native species for reforestation, especially information on seedlings and nursery practices.  Most information on propagation available before the creation of FORRU referred to exotic species.
  • In contrast, FORRU advocates reforestation with native species, known as “enrichment planting” or “accelerated/assisted natural regeneration.”  FORRU also stresses the importance of making this information available to local people.
  • FORRU collects information on fruit and seed phenology and morphology, seed germination (tested under partial and deep shade), and seedling characteristics.  Seedlings from germination tests are photographed, drawn, described, and kept as herbarium specimens.  Characteristics of Hovenia dulcis are provided as an example.
  • Information on seedling identification is especially important for the collection of “wildlings,” for assessing regeneration progress, and to avoid destruction or duplicate plantings of species.
  • The authors highlight the importance of compiling information on “framework species,” or species most appropriate to plant to complement natural regeneration.

Related Publications and Projects

Geographical Region

  • Mainland Southeast Asia
  • Country

  • Thailand
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    ELTI is a joint initiative of:
    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute