Resource Details

Monitoring of black mangrove restoration with nursery-reared seedlings on an arid coastal lagoon

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Toledo, G., Rojas, A. and Bashan, Y. 2001, “Monitoring of black mangrove restoration with nursery-reared seedlings on an arid coastal lagoon”, Hydrobiologia, vol. 444, pp. 101-109.

Contact Info


  • Environmental Microbiology, The Center for Biological Research of the Northwest (CIB), P. O. Box 128, La Paz B.C.S., 23000, Mexico
  • The Bashan Foundation for the Advancement of Science and Art



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Species Info

  • Avicennia germinans
  • Laguncularia racemosa
  • Rhizophora mangle


  • This paper describes a reforestation experiment with black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) in an arid mangrove forest of Baja California Sur, Mexico.
  • In arid mangrove systems, natural regeneration and small-scale reforestation are not adequate to restore mangrove forests, as they may be in the humid tropics.  Thus, alternative nursery techniques for arid mangroves must be developed.
  • The authors collected black mangrove propagules from the field and grew seedlings in a terrestrial nursery for 3 months.  Propagules were planted in plastic biodegradable bags in a sand and salt mixture, incubated indoors for 1 week, and then transferred to an outdoor nursery.  Survival rate in the nursery was 100%.
  • The seedlings were subsequently transplanted to a clear-cut black mangrove swamp in 5 plant clusters and were monitored every 6 months for 2 years.  Survival rate was 74% after 24 months.
  • Mangroves achieved maximum growth in two-plant clusters.
  • Natural regeneration in the experimental lagoon and in arid mangroves in general is very low, thus, planting of terrestrial nursery-reared mangroves provides a good option for restoration.  Direct planting and tidal zone nursery rearing have proved unsuccessful for arid mangrove systems.


  • Mangrove
  • Country

  • Mexico
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