Resource Details

Tree biodiversity in farmer cooperatives of a shade coffee landscape in western El Salvador

Literature: Journal Articles

Mendez, V.E., Gliessman, S.R. & Gilbert, G.S. 2007, "Tree biodiversity in farmer cooperatives of a shade coffee landscape in western El Salvador," Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol. 119, no. 1-2, pp. 145-159.

Contact Info

Corresponding Authors:,,


  • Environmental Program/Department of Plant & Soil Science, Hills Agricultural Building, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405, United States
  • Department of Environmental Studies, 1156 High St., University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, United States


Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment

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Species Info

  • Amyris elemifera
  • Annona muricata
  • Brosimum alicastrum
  • Cedrela odorata
  • Coccoloba montana
  • Cordia garascanthus
  • Eugenia salamensis
  • Eysenhardtia adenostylis
  • Guapira witsbergeri
  • Hymenaea courbari
  • Licania retifolia
  • Lonchocarpus minimiflorus
  • Manilkara chicle
  • Parathesis congesta
  • Psidium friedrichsthalianum
  • Quercus skinneri
  • Sideroxylon capiri
  • Spondias mombin
  • Swietenia humilis
  • Swietenia macrophylla
  • Tabebuia chrysantha
  • Tabebuia donnell-smithii
  • Tabebuia rosea


  • This research considered the effects of local livelihoods, cooperative types, as well as elevation, slope, percent shade, distance to remnant forest, coffee tree density and age, on tree diversity in shaded coffee farms in El Salvador.
  • In total, 123 tree species were identified; 23 of these species are of special concern for international conservation efforts.
  • Tree species richness was found to increase with tree density, while other biophysical factors were not found to effect species diversity.
  • Three different cooperative types were analyzed; the highest species richness, tree density, and percent shade was found on the cooperative that included active tree planting by individual farmers but did not include collective land management.
  • The authors exert the importance of considering farmer organization and management type when developing participatory models for tree biodiversity conservation in coffee farms.


  • El Salvador
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