Resource Details

Perceptions of biodiversity, environmental services, and conservation of planted mangroves: A case study on Nijhum Dwip Island, Bangladesh

Literature: Journal Articles

Iftekhar, M.S. & Takama, T. 2008, "Perceptions of biodiversity, environmental services, and conservation of planted mangroves: A case study on Nijhum Dwip Island, Bangladesh", Wetlands Ecology and Management, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 119-137.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author:


  • School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia
  • Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Oxford Office, United Kingdom


Wetlands Ecology and Management

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Species Info

  • Sonneratia apetala
  • Avicennia officinalis
  • Bruguiera gymnorhiza
  • Ceriops decandra
  • Excoecaria agallocha
  • Nypa fruticans


  • This research provides an overview of mangrove restoration in Bangladesh.
  • Scientists have estimates that of the three coastal ecosystems (coral reefs, sea-grass beds, and mangroves) that mangroves are the most feasible habitat to restore.
  • However, due to ecological and social factors many mangrove plantations fail. In the Nijhum Dwip Island of Bangladesh, the two species most often used (85%) in plantations are the native species Sonneratia apetala and Avicennia officinalis.
  • Occassionally other species are used such as Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Ceriops decandra, Excoecaria agallocha, and Nypa fruticans.
  • Repeated planting has to occur for the first 3 years of establishment, however, once established they often face encroachment and illegal felling.
  • For this research, the authors conducted 110 interviews to evaluate socio-economic conditions, human connection to mangroves, and the identification of species diversity in mangrove areas.
  • Respondents identified 38 plant species and 64 animal species that depend on the mangroves.
  • Respondents expressed a conflict between humans and the incursions of wildlife onto their farms and households.
  • Approximately one-fourth of the respondents felt dependent on the mangrove ecosystem with benefits including: protection against natural disasters, soil retention, and the provision of resources.
  • Many respondents expressed that the conversion of the mangrove lands into farmland, timber plantations, settlements, and aquaculture would be a more profitable way of using the land.
  • Over 80% of respondents felt that the mangrove ecosystem is actively being degraded by encroachment, illegal logging, and other factors.
  • The authors suggest that there are shifts in opinions about mangroves.
  • They recommend adaptive co-management to allow stakeholders to participate in the management of mangroves.

Geographical Region

  • South Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Mangrove
  • Country

  • Bangladesh
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