Resource Details

Multifunctional shade-tree management in tropical agroforestry landscapes – a review

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Tscharntke, T, Clough, Y., Bhagwat, S.A., Buchori, D., Faust, H., Hertel, D., Holscher, D., Juhrbandt, J., Kessler, M., Perfecto, I., Scherber, C., Schroth, G., Veldkamp, E. & Wanger, T.C. 2011, "Multifunctional shade-tree management in tropical agroforestry landscapes – a review," Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 619-629.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author:


  • Agroecology, Georg-August University, Grisebachstr. 6, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
  • Biodiversity Research Cluster, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK
  • Department of Plant Protection, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia
  • Human Geography, Georg-August University, Goldschmidtstr. 5, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
  • Ecology and Ecosystem Research, Albrecht-von-Haller Institute of Plant Sciences, Georg-August University, Grisebachstr. 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
  • Tropical Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Georg-August University, Büsgenweg 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
  • Agricultural Economics, Georg-August University, Platz der Göttinger Sieben 5, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
  • Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zürich, Zollikerstrasse 107, 8008 Zürich, Switzerland
  • School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  • Mars Incorporated and Federal University of Western Para, Santarém, Párá, Brazil
  • Soil Science of Tropical and Subtropical Ecosystems, Büsgen Institute, Georg-August University, Büsgenweg 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
  • Environment Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia


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Journal of Applied Ecology

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Species Info

  • Theobroma cacao
  • Coffea arabica
  • Coffea canephora


  • This article discusses the benefits of shade systems in the production of cacao and coffee crops, with a particular focus on the long-term cycle of cacao production.
  • Shade trees have been shown to improve functional biodiversity, carbon sequestration, soil fertility, drought resistance, and weed and pest control within cacao and coffee agroforestry systems.
  • Within cacao plantations, specifically, the benefits of shade change as the plant matures, with less shade required for older plantations.
  • The changing shade requirements of the cacao plant with age often lead to cacao "boom-and-bust" cycles.
  • The authors promote the use of a variety of multi-purpose shade trees that can be pruned instead of removed as the cacao crop matures to mitigate the "boom-and-bust" cycles.

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  • Ecosystems

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