Resource Details

A Survey of Small-Scale Farmers Using Trees in Pastures in Herrera Province, Panama

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Love, B., & Spaner, D. 2008, "A Survey of Small-Scale Farmers Using Trees in Pastures in Herrera Province, Panama", Journal of Sustainable Forestry, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 37-65.


  • Plant Science University of Alberta, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Sciences, USA
  • Native Species Reforestation Project (PRORENA) in Panama, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute,
    Unit 0948, APO AA, 34002-0948
  • 410 Agriculture/Forestry Centre, Edmenton, Alberta, T6G 2P5, Canada


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Species Info

  • Byrsonima crassifolia
  • Guazuma ulmifolia
  • Cordia alliodora
  • Enterolobium cyclocarpum
  • Caesalpinia coriaria
  • Persea americana
  • Zanothoxylum sp.
  • Terminalia sp.
  • Miconia sp.
  • Gliricidia sepium
  • Bambusa sp.
  • Cordia sp.
  • Copaifora aromatica
  • Chrysophyllum cainito
  • Hirtella racemosa
  • Miconia argentea
  • Swietenia macrophylla
  • Bursera simaruba
  • Bursera tomentosa
  • Colubrina glandulosa
  • Cedrela odorata
  • Bombacopsis quinatum
  • Spondias purpurea
  • Jatropha curcas
  • Enterolobium cyclocarpum
  • Apeiba aspera
  • Anacardium excelsum
  • Chloroleucon mangense
  • Chomelia spinosa
  • Eucalyptus globulus (exotic)
  • Albizia sp.
  • Inga sp.
  • Samanea saman
  • Luhea spinosa
  • Annona muricata
  • Inga vera
  • Tabebuia guayacan
  • Tabebuia ochracea
  • Psidium guinensis
  • Zyzyphus mauritiana
  • Mimosa tenuiflora
  • Ficus sp
  • Andira inermis
  • Mangifera indica (exotic)


  • This paper describes the results of a survey of small farmers in Panama with regard to the multipurpose uses of trees in pastures.
  • Nine distinct uses were identified: (1) shade for animals, (2) shade for water, (3) fodder for animals, (4) living fence stakes, (5) fruit, (6) construction wood, (7) firewood (8) medicinal products and (9) posts.
  • Survey participants reported the use of 82 different tree species; however, farm visits recorded a much higher number of species.
  • 100% of the participants used natural regeneration to manage trees on pastures, while 49% had used manual planting.
  • None of the informants reported the use of protein banks, citing a number of reasons for not having them, while over half of all informants retained trees for fodder.
  • The authors identify the need for further study on existing pasture tree species richness and suggest that more consideration be given to native tree species in pasture systems.

Geographical Region

  • Southern Central America
  • Country

  • Panama
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