Resource Details

Addressing forest degradation and timber deficits in Ghana

Literature: Books or Book Chapters Available at NO COST

Insaidoo, T.F.G., Ros-Tonen, M.A.F, Hoogenbosch, L., & Acheampong, E. 2012, "Addressing forest degradation and timber deficits in Ghana", in Broekhoven, G, Savenije, H. & von Scheliha, S. (eds.) Moving Forward with Forest Governance. Tropenbos International, Wageningen, the Netherlands, pp 230-239.

Contact Info


  • Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
  • Tropenbos International, Kumasi, Ghana
  • University of Amterdam, the Netherlands


Available at no cost: here


  • This article provides a history and analysis of reforestation techniques used in Ghana including: Private large-scale commercial plantations, large-scale commercial plantations as part of a government partnership with community members, the modified taungya system, and on-farm tree planting.
  • In 1996 the Ghanaian government launched the Forest Development Master Plan with the aim to promote 10,000 ha/year of reforestation for 20 years.
  • Although the program started as private and commercial plantations, policies enacted in the early 2000s encouraged the use of the modified taungya system and small-scale on-farm tree planting as well.
  • This article provides comparative information on a) planting schemes b) policies, c) key stakeholders, d) responsibilities, e) benefits, and f) the cash and non-cash income of workers for the four reforestation schemes presented above.
  • The authors assert the importance of providing income-generating opportunities by allowing intercropping in the early years, allowing other options (on-site seedling production, sale of thinned wood, advance timber payments, etc), and encouraging the use multiple species (instead of pure stands) which can help generate food, cash crops and NTFPs during the entire cycle.

Geographical Region

  • Other-Subtropics
  • Country

  • Ghana
  • This database is a work in progress, and we need your input to keep it up to date. Feel free to contact ELTI at to provide information on your own work as well as other projects and literature currently missing from the database.


    ELTI is a joint initiative of:
    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute