Resource Details

Regeneration of native plant species in restored forests on degraded lands in Singapore

Literature: Journal Articles

Shono, K., Davies, S. & Kheng, C. 2006, "Regeneration of native plant species in restored forests on degraded lands in Singapore", Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 237, no. 1-3, pp. 574-582.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author:


  • Center for Tropical Forest Science – Arnold Arboretum Asia Program

  • National Parks Board, Singapore,


Journal - Forest Ecology and Management

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Species Info

  • Macaranga heynei
  • Mallotus paniculatus
  • Trema tomentosa
  • Acacia auriculiformis
  • Macaranga conifera


  • This article presents the natural regeneration of woody species in the understory of 1 year-old and 4-year old plantation in Singapore.
  • Although the the site was cleared, except for remnant trees, before planting, the rootmatt of the fern Dicranopteris was left in the plots.
  • One plot within each site had the rootmat manually removed.
  • Regeneration of species greater than 10 cm in length were counted and identified.
  • The authors found significantly more diversity of regenerating woody plants in the four-year old site than the one-year-old site.
  • The one-year-old sites had significantly more abundance of herbaceous sedges, grasses, ferns, and vines.
  • In 1 year-old sites, the most prolific woody species were light-demanding pioneers including Macaranga heynei, Mallotus paniculatus, Trema tomentosa and Acacia auriculiformis, which grew up to 2m in one year.
  • In the 4 year-old plosts, M. heynei, Macaranga conifera, and M. paniculatus had were part of the canopy along with the planted trees. In the 4 year-old sites, diversity was high with 73 species observed; however, the majority of those species are small-seeded, medium stature secondary forest species.
  • Dipterocarp species were not found in the plots.
  • The authors assert that over time canopy closure can control the growth of herbaceous species and promote woody regeneration.
  • They also suggest that interplanting late-successional species that are tolerant of initial open conditions can help ensure late successional species presence later in the plantation.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • Singapore
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