Resource Details

Social and Ecological Synergy: Local Rulemaking, Forest Livelihoods, and Biodiversity Conservation

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Pershal, L., Agrawal, A., Chhatre, A. 2011, "Social and Ecological Synergy: Local Rulemaking, Forest Livelihoods, and Biodiversity Conservation", Science, vol. 331, no. 6024, pp. 1606-1608. Lauren Persha1,*, Arun Agrawal1, and Ashwini Chhatre2

Contact Info

Corresponding author:


  • School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 440 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  • Department of Geography, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 607 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA



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  • This study analyzes patterns of outcome relationships between forest-based household livlihoods and biodiversity conservation in 84 study sites from six countries in East Africa and South Asia.
  • The study explores the potential explanations for the joint production of forest-based household livelihoods and biodiversity conservation.
  • The authors identify important predictors of forest outcomes through ordered logistic regression analysis by building a model with three independent variables: forest size, formal participation of local forest users in forest rulemaking, and dependence on the forest for extractive commercial livelihoods.
  • The results indicate that forest systems are more likely to have sustainable outcomes when local forest users participate in forest rulemaking, especially in smaller forest fragments.


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  • Country

  • Tanzania
  • India
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