Resource Details

Reforestation Strategies Amid Social Instability: Lessons from Afghanistan

Literature: Journal Articles

Groninger, J. 2012, "Reforestation Strategies Amid Social Instability: Lessons from Afghanistan", Environmental Management, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 833-845.

Contact Info

Corresponding author:


  • Department of Forestry, Southern Illinois University, Mailcode 4411 Carbondale 62991-4411, IL, USA


Environmental Management

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Species Info

  • Pistacea vera
  • Quercus baloot
  • Quercus deletata
  • Quercus semicarpifolia
  • Cedrus deodara
  • Pinus geradiana
  • Artemesia spp.
  • Haloxylon spp.
  • Tamarix spp.
  • Acacia modesta
  • Ailanthus excelsa
  • Ailanthus glandulosa
  • Amygdalus communis
  • Fraxinus floribunda
  • Robinia pseudoacacia
  • Eucalyptus spp.
  • Pinus halepensis


  • This study evaluates recent reforestation programs in Afghanistan in anticipation of larger scale programs needed to address watershed-scale degradation.
  • This study surveys reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas in Afghanistan in order to provide insight for similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere, especially where reforestation may help reverse degradation and assist with social stabilization efforts.
  • The most popular programs facilitate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement.
  • The interest in programs varies due to accessibility, security and local objectives, and is impacted by uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs of local people.
  • Limitations include unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, and limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies.
  • This study suggests that a good place in similarly unstable areas is to address the technical limitations of conservation tree nursery production may be a good start, and that passive reforestation centered on range use and supplemental feeding might be the greatest untapped opportunity for meaningful restoration and reforestation efforts.

Geographical Region

  • South Asia
  • Other
  • Ecosystems

  • General
  • Country

  • Other
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