Resource Details

Restoration of Mangroves in Nigeria for the Petroleum Industry

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Jackson, L., Lewis III, R.R.R. 2000, Restoration of Mangroves in Nigeria for the Petroleum Industry.

Contact Info

Lucinda Jackson,


  • Chevron Research and Technoloy Company, Richmond, CA


Species Info

  • Avicennia germinans
  • Rhizopora harrisonii
  • Rhizopora racemosa
  • Rhizopora mangle


  • This review covers the restoration of mangroves following impacts by oil, salts or metals. The main types of mangroves, Rhizopora, Avicennia, and Laguncularia are all present in Nigeria. The most common mangrove species found in Nigeria is R. racemosa. Nigeria has the largest area of mangroves in Africa with approximately 10,000 km2.
  • The impacts on mangroves in Nigeria are from land conversion for urban development, deforestation, industrial and domestic waste, plantations of oil palms, digging canals, oil spills, salts and metals. The impact of oil on mangroves depends on the type of oil spilled, amount reaching the mangroves, and amount remaining after cleanup. Conversely, at low concentrations oil can stimulate mangrove growth.
  • They outline 5 sequential steps for successful natural mangroves revegation. These are, understanding the unique ecology of the mangrove species area; to determine the normal hydrology and flooding tolerances of the local mangrove species; to review past land use at the site that may hinder voluntary restoration; to design a restoration program to initially restore the hydrology and water quality at the selected site and determine if mangrove seedling recruitment will occur natural and to only use planting of propagules or nursery grown seedlings if voluntary restoration does not occur.
  • In other cases revegetating a disturbed area may require first planting a disturbed area with nurse species, plants that facilitate mangrove establishment by creating physical traps to strand and hold mangrove seedlings. For instance, in the Niger Delta, the salt-tolerant mangrove grass, Paspalum vaginatum is an example of a nurse plant.
  • In summary there are opportunities for low cost restoration of mangroves following oil and salt contamination, site selection is critical to restoration success, direct planting of Rhizopora is recommended where natural recruitment does not occur readily. Also direct planting of Laguncularia and Avicennia has a low success rate, nursery plantings are a viable option.

Geographical Region

  • West Africa
  • Ecosystems

  • Mangrove
  • Country

  • Nigeria
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