Resource Details

Colonization of non-planted mangrove species into restored mangrove stands in Gazi Bay, Kenya

Literature: Journal Articles

Bosire, J.O., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Kairo, J.G. & Koedam, N. 2003, "Colonization of non-planted mangrove species into restored mangrove stands in Gazi Bay, Kenya", Aquatic Botany, vol. 76, nos. 4, pp. 267-279.

Contact Info

J.O. Bosire,


  • Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laboratory of General Botany and Nature Management, Mangrove Management Group, Brussels, Belgium


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Species Info

  • Avicennia marina
  • Rhizophora mucronata
  • Sonneratia alba


  • This study investigates the potential for natural recruitment of non-planted mangrove species into reforested mangrove stands of Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba and Avicennia marina, now 5 years old in Kenya.
  • Several physico-chemical parameters were quantified and the density of non-planted mangroves in reforested monospecific stands as compared to bare and natural mangrove areas were determined.
  • The results show no re-colonization in any of the bare sites, whereas a number of species had recruited into the comparable reforested and natural stands with tree cover. Suggesting that mangrove restoration modified site conditions by facilitating settling and establishment of propagules.
  • Natural colonization varied among sites and mangrove species. The reforested S. alba stand had a higher number of recruits as compared to the natural stand, which may suggest a higher natural regeneration potential in the former. When compared to the other two S. alba had the lowest density of recruits. This is attributed to the harshness of the habitat for seedling survival due to exposure to strong wave attack and higher tidal velocities.
  • The higher densities of seedlings in the A. marina and R. mucronata natural stands can also be attributed to the presence of other adult tree species within these stands, which were the most likely propagule sources of the seedlings recruited contrary to the S. alba natural stand which was monospecific even for the adult trees.
  • In conclusion, mangrove restoration seems to facilitate natural colonization of sites by altering the hydrodynamics and other physico-chemical factors.

Geographical Region

  • East Africa
  • Ecosystems

  • Mangrove
  • Country

  • Kenya
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