Resource Details

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) projects: lessons for future policy design and implementation

Literature: Journal Articles

Dulal, H.B., Shah, K.U., and Sapkota, C. 2012, "Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) projects: lessons for future policy design and implementation", International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 116-129.

Contact Info

Corresponding author: hbdulal@gmail.com; hdulal@worldbank.org

Affiliations

  • The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA
  • Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, HNES 109, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, Canada
  • South Asia Watch on Trade, Economics and Environment (SAWTEE), Baluwatar, Kathmandu, Nepal

Link(s)

International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology

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Description

  • This study reviews six representative Reducing Emissions through Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) initiatives, two each from Africa, Asia and Latin America, by presenting their main strengths, weakensses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT).
  • The SWOT analysis in the case study from the Democratic Republic of the Congo revealed the following: strengths in one-third of REDD committee being comprised of civil society and indigenous people; weaknesses in difficulties to reach out to all stakeholders due to geography and divergent interests of different groups, language and legal hurdles, and lack of qualified manpower; opportunities in improving rural livelihoods, forest conservation, reduction of extreme poverty, economic, environmental and social benefits, contributing to political and economic stability; threats in conflict and poor governance, distrust between civil society and government, and a lack of infrastructure and disagreements over land tenure and indigenous rights.
  • The SWOT analysis in the case study from Tanzania revealed the following: strengths incommunity participation; weaknesses in policy hurdles in implementation, inadequate knoeldge and financing; opportunities in employment and foreign exchange reserves, strengthening of local institutions and social capital; threats in complicated land tenure and land rights, shifting cultivation and deforestation.
  • The SWOT analysis in the case study from Nepal revealed the following: strengths in community governance and institutions for forest management already exist; weaknesses in outdated forestry laws and regulations, threats to indigenous communities and their livelihoods; opportunities in proactive community participation, building institutional and technical capacities; threats in policy and institutional rigidity, rampant deforestation and degradation in the Terai.
  • The SWOT analysis in the case study from Indonesia revealed the following: strengths in the establishment of community agreements to manage forests, viable scalable climate change mitigation strategy; weaknesses in lack of experience and awareness of REDD, unclear land tenure provisions; opportunities in enhanced enforcement and community agreements, increase in employment opportunities and income for local people; threats in illegal logging, legal uncertainty.
  • The SWOT analysis in the case study from Bolivia revealed the following: strengths in organized communities, sustainable management plan; weaknesses in being prone to forest fires, limited success in providing sustainable development benefits; opportunities in improving basic services, investing in human capital formation, and alternative livelihood opportunities; threats in forest fires, illegal activities and logging, and the rising cost of land.
  • The SWOT analysis in the case study from Brazil revealed the following: strengths in control of deforestation, social and environmental benefits, good fund distribution; weaknesses in expense of monitoring in remote places, uncertain land tenure provisions; opportunities in income generation, improved local capacity in forest management; threats in illegal logging, mining and land grabbing, deforestation.
  • Main policy and project implementation factors that enable more effective and successful REDD project outcomes are presented. These include having clearly formulated project design, governance, land tenure rights and capacity, equity and transparency, indigenous peoples’ rights and knowledge, local–international coordination, and enhancing local and institutional capacities.
  • The authors provide recommendations, which include promoting the preservation of intact forests while including specific standards that protect biodiversity and ecosystem services, recognizing the role forests play in the livelihood and culture of indigeneous peoples, recognizing land tenure rights, and prioritizing the rights and interests of forest dependent peoples.

Geographical Region

Ecosystems

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