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Opportunities and Challenges for Ecological Restoration within REDD+

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Alexander, S., Nelson, C.R., Aronson, J., Lamb, D., Cliquet, A., Erwin, K.L., Finlayson, C.M., de Groot, R.S., Harris, J.A., Higgs, E.S., Hobbs, R.J., Robin Lewis, R.R., Martinez, D. & Murcia, C. 2011, "Opportunities and Challenges for Ecological Restoration within REDD+", Restoration Ecology, vol. 19, pp. 683–689.

Contact Info

  • S. Alexander:


  • Society for Ecological Restoration, Washington D.C. USA
  • College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA
  • Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Montpellier, France
  • Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO, USA
  • Center for Mined Land Rehabilitation, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
  • Department of Public International Law, Ghent University, Ghent, Belguim
  • Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW, Australia
  • Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands
  • School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, UK
  • School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
  • School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 
  • Lewis Environmental Services, Inc., PO Box 5430, Salt Springs, FL, USA
  • Indigenous Peoples Restoration Network, Douglas City, CA, USA
  • Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL,  USA


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  • This article discusses the possibilities for the inclusion of restoration as part of REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation plus benefits for biodiversity and income for communities).
  • One of the challenges for restoration is that plantations (monoculture or mixed-species) often do not provide the biodiversity benefits of native forests or forest restoration efforts, which places different financial incentives on restoration efforts.
  • The authors describe many of the challenges faced by REDD+ programs in general, such as the distribution of benefits to local communities and indigenous peoples, the engagement of the informal forestry sector, and the process of monitoring, reporting and verification.

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