Resource Details

Seeing the fruit for the trees in Borneo

Literature: Journal Articles

Kettle, C. J., Ghazoul, J., Ashton, P., Cannon, C. H., Chong, L., Diway, B., Faridah, E., Harrison, R., Hector, A., Hollingsworth, P., Koh, L. P., Khoo, E., Kitayama, K., Kartawinata, K., Marshall, A. J., Maycock, C., Nanami, S., Paoli, G., Potts, M. D., Samsoedin, I., Sheil, D., Tan, S., Tomoaki, I., Webb, C., Yamakura, T. and Burslem, D. F.R.P. 2011, “Seeing the fruit for the trees in Borneo”, Conservation Letters, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 184–191.

Contact Info

Corresponding Author:


Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich, CHN G 73.1, Universitätstrasse 16, Zurich 8092, Switzerland

(see link for full listing of other author's affiliations)


Conservation Letters

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  • There was a mass tree fruiting in Borneo 2009-2010 (the biggest in 12 years) but people were not prepared to harvest seeds and take full advantage of its use in restoration.
  • Diptocarps make up 10% of Borneo tree species and 80% of canopy species.
  • Assuming 500 seedlings / ha for restoration, 7.1 billion seedlings are needed to restore the degraded forests of Borneo.
  • Authors suggest:
    • Scientific knowledge (studying past reforestation projects) is a key to inform future restoration projects.
    • Organizations undertaking the restoration work need to have adequate capacity and infrastructure (nurseries, trained professionals, etc).
    • Restoration needs to focus on natives -- too many resources (and expertise) have centered on exotic Acacia mangium.
    • Strategies to focus ecological restoration around biodiversity conservation need to minimize monoculture plantations and should leverage existing biodiversity agreements and certification schemes.
    • Restoration should better take advantage of the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol (and expand the eligibility in future global treaties to include enrichment plantings).
    • Restoration should maximize rural livelihoods by utilizing species with local economic value.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • Indonesia
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