Resource Details

Economic botany of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) in Ecuador (Botánica económica de spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) en Ecuador)

Literature: Journal Articles

Macía, M. J. & Barfod, A. S. 2000, "Economic botany of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) in Ecuador", Economic Botany, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 449-458.


NY Botanic Garden


Economic Botany

Selecting the link above redirects this page to the article on the journal website where the online material can be purchased or accessed if with subscription. For more information on access, see sidebar.

Species Info

  • Spondias purpurea (Ciruela, Ovo)


  • This article reviews the Neotropical fruit Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) - "Ciruela" or "Ovo", describing the cultivation, yields, and economics of the fruit.
  • Spondias purpurea originated in Mexico and is cultivated in semi-dry regions throughout the Neotropics.  
  • S. purpurea is grown in orchards in polyculture with papaya, banana, and yucca.
  • Flowering occurs in the dry season. During cultivation, branches are often cleared of epiphytes (Tilliandsia recurvata). Propagation is done after the harvest, with vegetative cuttings 1.3-2.5m long, stored in the shade for a week, and planted when floral buds begin to open.  
  • Fruits are usually harvested green, 3-4 times during the life of a tree. Green fruits are exported and mature fruits are sold locally.  
  • In the two areas of Ecuador that were sampled, orchard maintenance and production costs are minimal, and cultivation can be manipulated so that it is possible almost throughout the year. Due to these factors, the authors found that revenues can be significant for small landowners.

Geographical Region

  • Andean Region
  • Country

  • Ecuador
  • This database is a work in progress, and we need your input to keep it up to date. Feel free to contact ELTI at to provide information on your own work as well as other projects and literature currently missing from the database.


    ELTI is a joint initiative of:
    Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute