Resource Details

Community reforestation in the Philippines: an evaluation of community contracts

Literature: Journal Articles

Espaldon, V.O. & Smit, B. 1997, "Community reforestation in the Philippines: an evaluation of community contracts", Knowledge and policy, vol. 10, no. 1-2, pp. 34-42.


Knowledge, Technology and Policy 

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Species Info

  • Ptereocarpus indicus
  • Diospyros philippensis


  • At first, the reforestation activities were lead by governmental agencies; however, they had only limited success.
  • As a change of focus, the NFP began to award contracts for reforestation activities to corporate entities, families, and communities/NGOs.
  • Over 232,000 hectares of land were contracted for reforestation through these awards.
  • This research evaluates the success of two community-contract reforestation programs made possible by this initiative.
  • For the Burdfi-Saamin contract, awarded in 1989, the community group used fast growing Acacia species with some native hardwoods, on 100ha of land.
  • They were allowed to grow crops and fruit trees between the planted trees but were charged with maintaining the forest and replanting any trees harversted or destroyed.
  • The CNSEDFI contract, awarded in 1989, planted hardwood trees (Ptereocarpus indicus and Diospyros philippensis) that grow slowly without shade or nurse trees.
  • There was high survival rate in both areas, however fires damaged many hectares of trees and made those areas even more difficult to reforest.
  • The authors assert that the BURDFI-SAAMIN had more success partly because they drew labor and input from the broader community, whereas the field manager for CNSEDFI only hired short term labor from outside of the area.
  • The community ownership and participation of BURDFI-SAAMIN will likely help the project prevent harvesting (illegal) on their land.
  • The authors present three challenges for the projects 1) species diversity must be increased as well as very selective harvesting to improve the ecosystem benefits, 2) it is clear tha 10% of revenue is not enough to be directed at replanting, 3) one organization cannot represent all de demands of the community around the plantation. By considering these points, the authors hope that program planners may prevent future problems with reforestation in the Philippines.

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • Tropical Wet Forest
  • Country

  • Philippines
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