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Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities

Literature: Journal Articles Available at NO COST

Bullock, J. M., Aronson, J., Newton, A. C., Pywell, R. F., Rey-Benayas, J. M. 2011, "Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities", Trends in Ecology and Evolution, v. 26, no. 10, pp. 541-549

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Corresponding author:


  • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB, UK
  • CNRS, Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, UMR 5175, F-34033 Montpellier, France
  • Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
  • School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Poole, Dorset, BH12 5BB, UK
  • Ecology Department, Edificio de Ciencias, Alcala University, E-28871 Alcala ́ de Henares, Spain


Trends in Ecology and Evolution

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Also available at no cost at Laboratório de Ecologia e Restauração Florestal - ESALQ/USP.


  • This article presents an analysis of the effectiveness of restoration projects in enhancing the provisioning of ecosystem services and the reversal of biodiversity loss.
  • The authors point out that many potential conflicts could arise as a consequence of not targeting ecosystem services in an integrated approach, resulting in slowness and incompleteness of the restoration process.
  • Although challenges and difficulties largely affect the success of restoration initiatives, new valuation methods indicate that costs could be potentially outweighed by economic benefits in the form of Payment for Ecosystem Services.
  • The authors suggest that the mechanism of providing incentives through Payments for Ecosystem Services schemes should be developed in such a way as to guarantee the achievement of biodiversity maintenance, enhancement of multiple services, and meeting of stakeholders needs.
  • Finally, the implementation of these approaches must happen in large scale in order to achieve global restoration success.

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