Resource Details

Annual report of the director of forestry of the Philippine Islands for the period … 1905-1913

Literature: Manuals, Guides, Reports

Philippines. Bureau of Forestry. Annual report of the director of forestry of the Philippine Islands for the period … 1905-1913.


Bureau of Forestry, Philippine Islands


Available in the Yale University Library

Species Info

  • Fagraea fragrans (Tembusa)
  • Albizia sp. (Alalangad)
  • Shorea polysperma (Balacbacan / Tanguile)
  • Leucaena leucocephala (ipil-ipil) (exotic)
  • Gliricidia sepium (madre cacao/cacahuate) (exotic)


  • This report contains a number of sections relevant to early reforestation activities in the Philippines.
  • Report 1905 on page 278, “Natural Reforesting of Cleared Land”, includes information from a study on succession pathways in cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica). A small woody plant, Cupao-cupao is drought-tolerant and fire-resistant and establishes shade benefiting Guava/Bayabas (Psidium guayava) and Alalangad (Albizia sp.). In the Remban district, Tembusa (Fagraea fragrans) is a tree that can successfully establish in cogon.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
  • Report 1910, p. 16. “Forest Extension”, mentions that experimental forest nurseries have been established at Baguio, in northern Negros, in Bataan and in Maquiling forests. Except for Baguio, only native species are planted, with the hope of providing stock for extensive plantings in cut-over areas and grass areas. The bureau does not have enough funding to dedicate enough time and money to this efforts, but many seeds have been collected and exchanged with foreign institutions. The nurseries contain 90,000 plants of 50 species ready for transplanting.
  • Report 1911, p. 20. “Forest Nurseries”, outlines the existing experimental nurseries (at the headquarters of the Bataan forest at Limay, at the forest station at Fabrica in Negros, at the Forest School campus in Los Banios, and Baguio). The Baguio nursery is the most extensive, and includes ornamental plants as well as timber species. No information on species or regeneration trials is given.
  • Report 1912, p. 19-21 “Reforestation on waste lands”, in which 68,000 square miles are designated “waste lands”, and mostly located near population centers. The bureau is working to find methods for restoring productive forests. Results indicate that tindao, acle, narra, teak, molave, ipil-ipil, cacahuate and lumbang can be grown successfully on cogon grasslands and in secondary forests. An experiment on broadcast seeding of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) in areas cleared of cogon is ongoing but shows promise. Other experiments concern madre cacao and bamboo. Plantations of lumbang and other fast-growing species have been established, and other plantings of the main timber species are planned to establish seed orchards. The report mentions that for species like ipil-ipil, santa elena(Leucaena glauca), madre cacao/cacahuate (Gliricidia sepium), firewood can be expected three years after planting. Lumbang, taluto, pinkapinkahan, and malapapaya are good matchwoods, and fast-growing species. Timber production is expected to take 75-100 years, or more, depending on species. Extensive timber seedling production is not currently proposed, but the report envisions shortages of the most valuable species in the near future. The report recommends initial studies on the cost of reproducing teak, tindalo, ipil, narra, molave, yacal, guijo, supa, calantas, and others. Experiments will also furnish data on silvicultural habits in growth. Active enrichment planting (in addition to selective weeding around desired seedlings and saplings) is recommended for the lower tract of the Maquiling reserve, in which few valuable species remain. Soil conditions there are comparable to virgin forest. 192 species of trees were planted in the Maquiling nursery within the last year. In addition, silvicultural studies are ongoing, including growth measurements of planted crops, and behavior of various species regarding seed treatment/storage, planting in the nursery, and transplanting. More research is needed for accurate understanding. There are plans for an ecologist to undertake detailed studies at Maquiling, including on climatic conditions and transpiration rates of forest trees in the seedling stage, forest soil types, cogon soil types, and silvicultural conditions of second growth and cogon areas.
  • p. 47 - Baguio Nurseries - one of the two nurseries was damaged in a typhoon, and will be abandoned, there are a total of 33,000 seedlings and shrubs. The main difficulty is the prohibition of manure use, since soils are infertile. Commercial fertilizer is less stable and unlike manure does not affect the physical properties of the soil.
  • Report 1913, p. 25, “Division of Investigation - Silvicultural Studies on Mt. Maquiling”. This section mentions that a botanist has been conducting a detailed study of the forest ecosystem on Mt. Maquiling, including a study on reproduction under the various light and other conditions after logging operations as well as comparative work on run-off and other conditions affecting forest growth in cogon and secondary forest areas.
  • p. 27, “Mangrove swamps”. This section includes information on mangrove replanting efforts (bacauan) that have been undertaken for years by local communities. The section gives a more detailed account of areas chosen, seedling colletion and nursery treatment, and planting time.
  • p. 30, “Reforestation”. This section gives more detail on the ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca) (sic) experiment mentioned in the 1912 report (see above). Both ipil-ipil and madre cacao are seen as highly successful in establishing in cogon-dominated areas. Neither is native but both are commonly found across the Philippines. Germination rates for Ipil-ipil are 40%, and shows good results for broadcast sowing, dibbling with a stick, and hand corn planters. Planting is recommended for the rainy season, and growth of 12-15 feet is obtained in one year. Ipil-ipil coppices well and is mostly used for firewood. Diameter of up to 6 inches and height of up to 30 feet are reported. Experiments show that it could serve as nurse crop for timber species. 

Geographical Region

  • Insular Southeast Asia
  • Ecosystems

  • General
  • Country

  • Philippines
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