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Annual report of the director of forestry of the Philippine Islands for the period … 1914-1919

Literature: Manuals, Guides, Reports

Philippines. Bureau of Forestry. Annual report of the director of forestry of the Philippine Islands for the period … 1914-1919


Bureau of Forestry, Philippine Islands


Available in the Yale University Library


  • This document is a collection of annual reports to the Philippine Bureau of Forestry from 1914-1919.
  • Report 1914
    • “Experimental Logging”, p. 28-29. The section describes the failure of seedlings and saplings to withstand high light conditions after logging, leading to unsatisfactory regeneration in logged stands. The Bureau of Forestry is undertaking studies to find suitable management practices. A study was conducted in a concession awarded in 1913, and the area will be revisited in the future to gather data on the impact of management practices. Another concession was studied as well, including reproduction studies, stand analyses, composition studies, leading to a recommended management system.
    • “Reproduction Studies”, p. 29-30. Natural regeneration was measured in plots laid out in another concession. The report mentions plans for “uninterrupted” study of the plots for the next 6 months at least.
    • “Ipil-Ipil”, p. 30. This section mentions a publication summarizing the research completed on Ipil-Ipil for reforestation of cogon grass lands for firewood production (published as Bulletin No. 13).
    • “Forest Plantations”, p. 31-32. The report states that a native species nursery was established at the Forest School in Los Banios in 1910 to research the production of planting stock for future large-scale reforestation efforts, and for current replanting efforts of private landowners. There is a table showing nursery production and germination rates for 1914:
      • Area of the nursery: 6,179 square meters
      • Total number pf species planted: 118
      • Total number of species handled: 170
      • Total number of seeds sown: 434,044
      • Total number of plants obtained: 35,395
      • % of plants obtained: 7.924
      • Average % germination: 15.089
      • The % of plants obtained doubled from 1913 due to better care and increased knowledge. Germination % dereased from 1913, probably because the report was compiled before the last seeds planted had germinated. Seeds were collected by forest officers.
    • “Arboretum”, p. 32. The arboretum contains about 150 species which are measured and growth is compared with individuals from nurseries and plantations.
    • “Cooperative Planting”, p. 33. 74 school nurseries were established in cooperation with the Bureau of Education, based on widely disseminated plantation establishment instructions for the seven main recommended species. Seeds were also distributed to some individuals for planting. The report notes that the Bureau increasingly receives requests for advice on species-level treatments for forest plantations.
    • “The Work in Baguio”, p. 44-46. Gives updates on the work of the nusery in Baguio, producing species adapted to the poor soil and high elevation environment. The nursery was moved to a new site, with better infrastructure, and several thousand seedlings have been planted in the new location. Trials with lowland species showed poor survival at elevation (4-5,000 feet). Some species-specific qualitative performance information is given, mainly for exotics. The nursery is increasingly focusing on native species from the surrounding areas. Overall, the nusery contains 35,000 plants. To test inexpensive planting techniques, Buenguet silver maple seedlings were planted with minimum site preparation and no post-planting treatment.
  • Report 1915
    • “Division of Investigation” - “Reproduction Studies”, p. 40. Natural regeneration plots mentioned in 1914 were remeasured twice in the past year. Preliminary observations include beneficial effect of light fire immediately after cutting, and sufficient reproduction of dipterocarps under “proper conditions” (not specified further).
    • “Growth Studies of Forest Trees”, p. 40.  Periodic remeasurements of the 594 individuals of 8 species mentioned in 1914. A report is being compiled. Preliminary observations show that some species have two periods of rapid growth per year.
    • “Forest Plantations”, p. 41. A table summarizes the nursery production for 1915:
      • Area of the nursery: 6,324 square meters
      • Total number pf species planted: 108
      • Total number of species handled: 179
      • Total number of seeds sown: 544,868
      • Total number of plants obtained: 15,204
      • % of plants obtained: 2.79
      • Average % germination: 15.98
      • Total number of plants set out: 12,480
      • Total number of plants transplanted to nursery rows: 12,967
      • Total number of plants put in bamboo pots: 4,315
      • Fewer plants were obtained because recalcitrant seeds were received right before the dry season, many seeds sown had been stored for a long time, and some seeds were planted very late (Nov/Dec) and have yet to germinate.           
    • “Transplanting Studies”, p. 41. Optimal transplanting time was two months later than the previous year. Bare-root planting was attempted this year with delicate seedlings planted in bamboo pots which show higher survival. Age and size are considered when transplanting.
    • “Root Development at Different Ages”, p. 42. Seedlings were dug up for root measurements (144 individuals of 95 species). Individuals will be treated and mounted or photographed. The report mentions species (in order from deepest to shallowest rooter): Acleng-parang, narra, cupang, tindalo, lanete, duhat, banaba, palomaria de la playa, teak, calumpit, anagap, tanglin, dungon-late, balacat-gubat,
    • Species with short tap roots include:  Amuguis, dao, pili, kamatog, supa, Swietenia macrophylla, white nato, molave
    • “Seed Distribution”, p. 43. Large amounts of seeds were requested, since school nurseries and outreach have generated interest. Distribution (together with planting instructions) was limited by inadequate supply and shipping cost. The report includes a table with numbers of seedlings distributed (in liters): Ipil-ipil - 362..25, Lumbang - 175, Teak - 48.58, Narra - 40, Ipil - 9.57, Acle - 2.75, Tindalo - 2.90, Molave - 1.25, Gogo - 1, Bunga de China - 1, Palomaria - .83, Fire tree - .55, Banaba - .35, Bottle-shaped gourd - .30, Acleng-parang - .25, Bombax ceiba - .25, Swietenia mahagoni - .12, Lanutan I - .1, Total - 647.05
    • The report mentions that ipil-ipil, lumbang, teak and narra “are very successful for planting work”.
    • “Experiments with Cuttings”, p. 44. Cuttings were taken from 30 species, from individuals of 1 to 5+ cm dbh in ½ cm intervals. For 5 months, weekly observations were recorded, and the cuttings appear to have been very successful. The report lists the species that can be propagated by cuttings: Molave, teak, hairy-leaf molave, tindalo, narra, balobo, tamayuan, lago, kalingag, malaruhat, liusin, banaba, anagap, catmon
    • “Germination Test”, p. 44-45. 5000 fresh ipil-ipil seeds were tested from October 1914-April 1915. 10 cm of sawdust was placed in a 60 cm square box, and covered with blotting paper. Seeds were scattered evenly on top and kept moist and under moderate light out of the wind. Germinated seeds were counted every morning. First germination occurred at five days, maximum germination occurred at 10 days (242 seeds) after a wet cloth was applied. 1,119 seeds or 22.38% of seeds germinated. Similar results were obtained in a replicate study by forestry school students.
    • “Roadside Planting”, p. 45. Lumbang and Raintree were planted in 15 m spacing along the road from the college to the neighboring village in June 1914. Dead individuals were replaced with seeds and cuttings. 44 Raintrees (Acacia) survived, with average height of 4.4 meters and average diameter of 5.5 cm. 5 lumbang trees survived, with average height of 1.93 m.
    • “Cooperation”, p. 61-62. School nursery supervision and seed distribution continues. No numbers are given. The Bureau is experimenting in the Baguio nursery with seeds from trees that might serve people at higher elevation: Pili, almaciga, mango, etc.
    • The Baguio nursery in 1915 produced 10,800 plants for the city of Baguio in addition to plants given to landowners. The nursery experimented with 400 species, of which 200 showed satisfactory results. Half of these were native to the province, and native species are increasingly becoming the focus of the nursery’s work and seed collection from the surrounding areas is ongoing. 90% of the 316 species in the herbarium are from the Mountain Province. There is a small reforestation experiment on bare hills near Pakdal with 10 species of trees, most of which show promise. Numerous species from temperate regions were also tested, with mixed success:
      • fir, spruce, linden, elm, birch - failed
      • ash, alder, locust, sycamore, paulownia, liriodendron, catalpa, ailanthus, liquidambar, syringa, philadelphus, deutzia, spiraea, exochorda, calycanthus, rhus cotinus, lonicera, berberis, and others merit more observation 
      • juniperus, cupressus, thuja spp. grew well from seeds and cuttings
      • trees from Formosa, including alnus maritima, camphor, sapindus, and cryptomeria showed good growth
      • subtropical shrubs, including rhododenron, azalea, myrtus, punica granatum, erica herbacea, etc. showed satisfactory growth and merit more observation as they have not flowered yet
      • camphor cuttings root readily.
      • Overall, excessive rains killed numerous seedlings leading to experiments with new seed beds, containing a layer of stones for drainage.
  • Report 1916
    • “Silviculture”, p. 31-32. Growth measurements of 600 forest trees (measured in 1913 and 1914) have been continued. More extensive measurements are taken in nurseries and plantations resulting in average growth rates under certain conditions. Silviculture students have compiled silvical leaflets since 1914, adding decidedly to our knowledge of about 100 species. Remeasurement of natural regeneration plots (mentioned in 1913 and 1914) in ongoing. More plots should be established. In the nurseries and plantations, over 600 species have been tested. Promising plantation crops include: Ipil-ipil, lumbang, bagilumbang, molave, lanutan, narra, calantas, teak, Swietenia macrophylla.
    • In 1916, forest plantations of dipterocarp species and rattans were established. So far, planting in open areas has not succeeded. Permanent plantations were expanded by 7 ½ hectares, and 29 hectares of cogon areas were planted primarily with ipil-ipil showing promise if fires can be kept out for one year. Several species-level studies have been completed, including root development of 224 species, cuttings of 104 species, and forest-grown seedlings of 34 species.
    • “Reforestation”, p. 33-37. Ipil-ipil grass is found to kill cogon grass in 2 years. The only necessary site preparation is burning the cogon grass and broadcasting seeds. Several municipalities have implemented ipil-ipil reforestation efforts, and landowners have planted ipil-ipil and are harvesting firewood on a 1-2 year rotation. 30 hectares in the Maquiling reserve and 15 hectares in the Calmba estate have been planted. In 1916, the Bureau has expanded reforestation to the Talisay-Minglanilla estate on Cebu. Details of this project are given (BRIEFLY SUMMARIZED):
    • Size: 4,095 hectares
    • Soil, topography: mountainous with steep slopes, rocky.
    • Boundary: 14.1 km of 17.2 km were planted with a total of 30,230 ipil-ipil and kapok seeds
    • Planting: after planting the boundaries, cogon areas in the different blocks were burned. Seeds were bought in Cebu.
    • Species planted: Lumbang (Aleurites moluccana), Baguilumbang (Aleurites trisperma) and ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca).
    • The cheapest planting method was employed: A. moluccana seeds treated with “burning method” (?) and directly sown in swidden fallows in 3 m by ½ m spacing. L. glauca seedlings were planted by dibble in 2 m intervals. In burned cogon areas, 24 l/ha of seeds were broadcast.
    • The report provides a summary table:
      • Total area: (hectares) 4,095
      • Total area planted (approx.): 666
      • % Area planted: 16.26
      • Total amount of Ipil-ipil seeds planted: (liters) 9,342
      • Total number of Ipil-ipil seedlings planted: 74,611
      • Total number of Baguilumbagn seeds planted: 163,930
      • Total distance of boundary cleared: (km) 17.2
      • Total distance of boundary line planted: 14.1
      • There is a short description of the different blocks and the amount of area planted in each (p. 36).
    • Results for ipil-ipil broadcasting are given (for block A): of 475 seedlings measured in January of 1917 (no planting date given), the average height was 17 cm. Estimated surviving seedlings: 39,583,300. Average germination rate is 58.1. Results for ipil-ipil seedlings: in this block, total planted: 60,770. Many have sprouted and are competing with the cogon.
    • Baguilumbang planting: 152,930 seeds sown, in 3 m by 50 cm spacing. Average height of 335 seedlings measured was 40.84 cm in January of 1917. There are 336 live plants in 500 square meters. The same information is given for blocks B and C (p. 36-37).
    • “The Work in Benguet”, p. 47-49. The trials in the Baguio nursery involve 10 species and a total of 2,777 plants planted in grassland, and Benuget pine seeds broadcast onto grassland. The nursery plans trials on grafting and budding exotic species onto native stock and continued testing of economic species.
  • Report 1917
    • “Reforestation”, p. 10-11. Although there is increasing interest in reforestation in municipalities and from private landowners, lack of funding prevents large-scale implementation of reforestation activities. In Benguet, 14,000 shrubs were planted for watershed stabilization and recovering land from cogon. An additional 971 hectares were planted in Cebu (in project mentioned in 1916 report). No other details given.
    • Nurseries and plantations: now cover over 30 hectares of permanent plantations, 1.374 hectares of special dipterocarp plantations, 0.647 hectares of rattan plantations, and 32 hectares of experimental grass land planting. Monthly measurements are taken on growth for all plants in nurseries, quarterly measurements for trees in plantations, and yearly measurements for plantings in the mountains. 650 species have been planted to date.
    • Species suitable for planting on a commercial scale: Ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca), Narra (Pterocarpus spp.), Molave (Vitex spp.), Lanutan I. (Bombycidendron vidalianum), large-leaved Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Calantas (Toona calantas), Sibucao (Caesalpinia sapran), Teak (Tectona grandis), Lumbang (Aleurites moluccana), Baguilumban (Aleurites trisperma)
    • Species showing promise: Brazil Logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum), Banalo (Thespesia populnea), Palomaria  de la Playa, or Bitaog (Calophyllum inophyllum), West Indian Cedar (Cedrela odorata), Banuyo (Wallaceodendron celebicum), Betis (Bassia betis)
    • The best-performing trees in each lot were measured in addition to average growth measurement and tabulated by hectares.A thinning plan is being developed by students, and implemented under their supervision. Data on treatments and cost is recorded (No mention on where this information is kept).
    • Cebu reforestation project: 1,315 hectares have been planted with ipil-ipil, lumbang and baguilumbang in 2 years. A report on this planting was given to the departmental conference on October 6. Growth measurements of dipterocarps continue to be recorded. This data was also presented to the departmental conference on September 10, 1917. Measurements were expanded to full ¼-hectare plots, to be measured yearly. Silvical leaflets now exist for a total of 120 species. Cutting experiments have been performed with 143 species, forest-grown seedlings with 45 species, root development of 279 species, and natural regeneration continues to be measured twice a year in the plots established in 1913. 7 new plots were added in 1918. A report is currently being prepared based on these measurements (the last data was presented in June 1917). (No mention of author or further description of report).
    • “Forest Nursery, Baguio”, p. 37-38. 20,000 cuttings have been planted, and seedlings have been collected from the area. 13 of 52 species planted are exotics. Part of the nursery is being converted to seed orchard.
    • Trial plantings have been conducted with the following species: Eucalyptus, Hickory, Oaks, Peach, Pear, Apple, Gooseberry, Raspberry, Ricinus, Cinchona (seedlings planted in 1916, most died).
    • Economic species are being distributed among the Igorot. The nursery contains 3,500 seedlings of successful species, of which 700 are camphor, 400 eucalyptus, and 600 Mindoro pines. Total tree seedling number is 6000. No foreign pine species showed promise. Pinus longifolia and Pinus rigida have not yet reached transplanting size after 3 years. In various projects, 300 camphor trees, 500 trees (no spp.) and 14,000 cuttings of Mirasolia (Tithnoia diversifolia) were planted.
  •  Report 1918
    • “Division of Investigation - Silviculture”, p. 27-28. The division in this year focused on producing bulletins on NTFPs. In the nurseries, 15 species were tested. 3 ½ hectares were added to forest species plantations. Measurements of average and maximum growth are now taken biannually instead of quarterly for cost reasons. Growth rate measurements in forests continue and additional trees and areas have been added. The measurements now cover enough time to provide useful insight, the Bureau intends to publish reports on this data. Silvical leaflets of 75 new species were completed (for a total of 195 leaflets). 69 species were tested for cutting (some new, some previously unsuccessful). Seedlings of 18 new species were collected and planted in the nursery (total 55). Measurements in the natural regeneration plots continue.
    • “The Work in Baguio - Nursery”, p. 29. 16,000 cuttings of desirable species were planted, and 1000s of native herbaceous perennials are now available. New facilities have been built to enable higher production numbers. Trials with economic species are ongoing, including Cinchona grown as a future seed source (22 individuals in healthy condition, over 50 cm tall, a few pruned for dying tops). Economic trees from the US have shown little success. 45,000 cuttings were planted for reforestation, and 4,680 plants were distributed to city and individuals.
    • “Reforestation”, p. 31. Lack of funding prevented large-scale activities but preliminary work was done in Ilocos Province in choosing possible sites and reaching out to municipalities. Some Ipil-Ipil seeds were distributed, and small nurseries will be established.
    • "Talisay-Minglanilla Reforestation Project, Cebu”, p. 32: Report shows table summarizing project activity to date (area managed, planted, amount of seed by species). No broadcasting is planned for 1919 due to lack of funds but nursery-grown seedlings can be planted in swidden areas.
    • “Baguio Reforestation Project”, p. 33: Pine transplants (30-60 cm) were planted in cogon areas in 1.5 x 1.5 m spacing. Trials are being done on Idog (Viburnum odoratissimum), a local hardwood used by natives for fences and hedges. 45,000 cuttings were planted in another site, and survival of previous planted cuttings there was 75%.
  • Report 1919
    • “Reforestation Bulletin”, p. 25-26. All the trees in plantations at Los Banios have been numbered and measured, and publication is planned for the following year.
    • Experimental plantations were expanded by 3 ¾ hectares. Additional reforestation efforts with ipil-ipil seedlings on Mt. Maquiling showed good survival of small seedlings (one cm in diameter) only. Areas broadcast with Ipil-ipil seeds in 1914 show good growth, but Sacchareum spontaneum is still posing problems. Swidden cultivators are now required to plant forest trees, starting in 1920. The nursery will be transferred in 1920. The total number of seedlings on hand are 18.045, and cuttings 707. Species planted include: Baguilumbang (Aleurites trisperma), Banuyo (Wallaceodendron celebicum), Firetree (Delonix regia), Kamachile (Pithecolobium dulce), Lanutan I (Bombycidendron vidalianum), Lumbang (Aleurites moluccana), Malaruhat (Eugenia sp.), Narra (Pterocarpus indicus), Sibukau (Caesalpinia sappan), Teak (Tectona grandis)
    • “Silviculture”, p. 26-27. Every tree in the plantation was tagged and measured (diameter and height). Yearly measurements of forest trees continue (590 trees of Bagtikan, White Lauan, Taluto, Katmon, Guijo, Tamayuan, Dungon, and Camagon), in addition to all individuals in a pure Bagtikan stand nearby. The data will be published soon pending staff reinforcement. 21 new species were described in Silvical Leaflets (total 216), and natural regeneration plots continue to be measured. This data will also be published (No information on specific plan for publication).
    • “The Work in Baguio - Nursery”, p. 28-29. Demand for plants was reduced, and the nursery contains 10,000 trees for planting. Scarcity of Pinus insularis seeds impeded 1919 plantings. 2,000 plants and 957 small trees were planted in an experimental plantation.
    • “Reforestation”, p. 32-35. In Ilocos, 11,850 liters of ipil-ipil seeds were distributed, with 675 liters of lumbang and 825 liters of baguilumbang. 15 demonstration plots were established, on 270 hectares, and two nurseries were established. After 6 months to 1 year, average height for ipil-ipil is 20 cm, for lumbang 30 cm and for baguilumbang (after two monthts) 35 cm. Narra and algarroba (Ceratonia siliqua) have also been planted in nurseries but the bulk of seedstock consists of the three former species.
    • In Arayat, a project established in 1914, 50 hectares have been planted with Ipil-Ipil. Little success was obtained from broadcasting ipil[ipil seeds, and municipalities have not been very supportive.
    • In Cebu, more species were planted in trials in the nursery, but little new area was planted on site. There is a table summarizing areas planted, and number of seeds planted (update of table from 1918 report). Amounts of firewood and charcoal gathered off the project site are also given in a table (393 cubic meters in 4 years).
    • In Baguio, wild pine seedling trials showed poor results, in part due to a long dry season. In new efforts, 60,000 cuttings were planted around a hydroelectric plant. Continuous growth records now exist for local pine, and measurements will be taken in future years as well.

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